Maximizing Product Innovation through Adaptive Application of User-Centered Methods for Defining Customer Value
Establishing deep understanding of customers is a prerequisite to improve success rates of innovations under today’s transient business conditions. This paper summarizes methods and tools to increase customer understanding in new product development. A case study of developing an office chair was conducted, utilizing four such methods (web based survey, interview, observation and workshops) to provide directions for later application. Results indicate that methods revealing emotionally-related customer information (workshops and observation) are resource-intensive and provide less amount of information directly applicable to the product development team. The opposite is the case for methods providing more functionally-related information (web based survey and interview). The overall conclusion is that the latter methods are more suitable for product improvements, while the former may provide valuable information for creating more differentiated products.
ALAM, I. (2006). Removing the fuzziness from the fuzzy front-end of service innovations through customer interactions. Industrial Marketing Management, 35(2006), 468-480.
BARCZAK, G., Griffin, A., Kahn, K.B. (2009). Trends and Drivers of Success in NPD Practices: Results of the 2003 PDMA Best Practices Study. Journal of Product Innovation Management, 26(1), 3-23.
BIGLIARDI, B., Colacino, P., Dormio, A.I. (2011). Innovative Characteristics of Small and Medium Enterprises. Journal of Technology Management & Innovation, 16(2), 83-93.
BROWN, T. (2009). Change by Design. HarperCollins Publishers, New York.
BUTZ JR., H.E., Goodstein, L.D. (1996). Measuring Customer Value: Gaining the Strategic Advantage. Organizational Dynamics, 24, 63– 77.
CARLSON, C.R., Wilmot, W.W. (2006). Innovation: The Five Disciplines for Creating What Customers Want. Crown Business, New York.
CHURCHILL, G.A., Brown, T.J. (2004). Basic Marketing Research. Fifth Edition. Thomson South-Western, Ohio.
COOPER, R.G. (2005). Product Leadership: Pathways to Profitable Innovation. Second Edition. Basic Books, New York.
CORMICAN, K., O’Sullivan, D. (2004). Auditing best practice for effective product innovation management. Technovation, 24(2004), 819-829.
ENKEL, E., Kausch, C., Gassmann, O. (2005). Managing the Risk of Customer Integration. European Management Journal, 23(2), 203-213.
FLINT,D.J.,Blocker,C.P.,BoutinJr.,P.J.(2010).Customervalue anticipation, customer satisfaction and loyalty: An empirical examination. Industrial Marketing Management (in press).
FLORES, F. (1993). Innovation By Listening Carefully to Customers. Long Range Planning, 26(3), 95-102.
GAVER, W.W., Boucher, A., Pennington, S., Walker, B. (2004). Cultural probes and the value of uncertainty. Interactions, 11(5), 53-56.
GOLDENBERG, J., Lehmann, D., Mazursky, D. (1999). The Primacy of the Idea Itself as a Predictor of New Product Success. Marketing Science Institute (MSI) Working Report, 99-110 (1999).
GORDON, J. (2006). Returning Insight To The Consumer. Stagnito’s New Products Magazine. December 2006 Issue.
GRUNER, K.E., Homburg, C. (2000). Does Customer Interaction Enhance New Product Success? Journal of Business Research, 49(1), 1-14.
HUTHWAITE, B. (2007). The Rules of Innovation. Institute for Lean Innovation, Michigan.
JOHNE, F.A., Snelson, P.A (1988). Success factors in product innovation: A selective review of the literature. Journal of Product Innovation Management, 5(2), 114-128.
KÄRKKÄINEN, H., Piippo, P., Tuominen, M. (2001). Ten tools for customer-driven product development in industrial companies. International Journal of Production Economics, 69(2001), 161-176.
KELLEY, T. (2005). The Ten Faces of Innovation: IDEO’s Strategies for Defeating the Devil’s Advocate and Driving Creativity Throughout Your Organization. Currency Doubleday, New York.
KHALID, H.M., Helander, M.G. (2006). Customer Emotional Needs in Product Design. Concurrent Engineering, 14(3), 197-206.
KUNIAVSKY, M. (2003) Observing the user experience: A practitioner’s guide to user research. Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, San Francisco.
MARTIN, R. (2009). The Design of Business. Harvard Business School Publishing, Massachusetts.
MCDANIEL, C., Gates, R. (2006). Marketing Research Essentials. Fifth Edition. John Wiley & Sons, United States of America.
MCDONAGH, D., Bruseberg, A., Haslam, C. (2002). Visual product evaluation: exploring users’ emotional relationships with products. Applied Ergonomics, 33, 231-240.
SANDERS, E.B.-N. (1992). Converging Perspectives: Product Development Research for the 1990s. Design Management Journal, 3(4), 49-54.
SANDERS, E.B.-N. (1999). Postdesign and Participatory Culture. In: Proceedings of Useful and Critical: The Position of Research in Design. University of Art and Design, Helsinki.
SANDERS, E.B.-N. (2000), Generative Tools for CoDesigning. In: Scrivener, S. A. R., Ball, L. J., Woodcock, A. (Eds.), Collaborative Design: Proceedings of CoDesigning 2000. Springer-Verlag, London.
SANDERS, E.B.-N. (2002). From User-Centered to Participatory Design Approaches. In: Frascara, J. (Ed.), Design and the Social Sciences: Making Connections. Taylor & Francis, London.
SPITERI, J.M., Dion, P.A. (2004). Customer value, overall satisfaction, end-user loyalty, and market performance in detail intensive industries. Industrial Marketing Management, 33(2004), 657-687.
STAPPERS, P.J., Sanders, E.B.-N. (2003). Generative tools for context mapping: turning the tools. In: McDonagh, D., Hekkert, P., van Erp, J., Gyi, D. (Eds.), Design and Emotion. Taylor & Francis, London.
SUN H., Yau, H.K., Suen, E.K.M. (2010). The Simultaneous Impact of Supplier and Customer Involvement on New Product Performance. Journal of Technology Management
& Innovation, 16(2), 83-93.
TIDD, J., Bessant, J., 2009. Managing Innovation: Integrating Technological, Market and Organizational Change. Fourth Edition. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., England.
ULWICK, A., 2005. What Customers Want: Using Outcome-Driven Innovation to Create Breakthrough Products and Services. McGraw-Hill, New York.
VERGANTI, R. (2009). Design-Driven Innovation: Changing the Rules of Competition by Radically Innovating What Things Mean. Harvard Business Press, Boston.
WIKTORSSON, M., Groth, M. (2011). Conditinos for Innovation: Insights from a Multi-case Study. Journal of Technology Management & Innovation, 6(2), 203-217.
WOODRUFF, R.B. (1997). Customer Value: The Next Source for Competitive Advantage. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 25(2), 139-153.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).