Will Governmental Incentives in Developing Countries Support Companies to Innovate More? Evidences from Skin Care Patent Applications in Brazil


  • Ivan Domicio da Silva Souza Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences of Ribeirão Preto
  • Tuanny Leite Almeida Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences of Ribeirão Preto
  • Vania Passarini Takahashi Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences of Ribeirão Preto




patents, industrial property, biodiversity, innovation incentives, skin care, Brazil.


Recent Brazilian Governments have provided incentives to support domestic innovation; however, some claim that the country has set conflicting policies towards innovation, industrial property and biodiversity exploitation. After an analysis of patent applications filled in the Brazilian National Institute of Industrial Property, we observed that current governmental measures have not performed as expected, at least in the skin care industry. Throughout the paper we discuss plausible reasons why this sector has not managed to innovate more, reasons that may affect other businesses as well. This case is exemplary to developing economies that have implemented or are in the process of renewing their innovation policies.


Download data is not yet available.


AKEHURST, G., Afonso, C., Gonçalves, H. M. (2012). Re-examining green purchase behaviour and the green consumer profile: new evidences. Management Decision, 50 (5), 972-988. http://doi.org/10.1108/00251741211227726

ANTONELLI, A., Rodriguez, V. (2009). Brazil should facilitate research permits. Conservation Biology, 23 (5), 1068-1069. http://doi.org/10.1111/j.1523-1739.2009.01300.x

ARRUDA, A. C. (2009). Rede de inovação de dermocosméticos na Amazônia: o uso sustentável de sua biodiversidade com enfoques para as cadeias produtivas da castanha-do-pará e dos óleos de andiróba e copaíba. Parcerias Estratégicas, 14 (29), 145-172.

BARABEL, M., Chabault, D., Meier, O., Tixier, J. (2009). La dynamique de territoire et l’evolution d’un pôle de compétitivité: le cas de Cosmetic Valley. Management & Avenir, 5 (25), 144-163. http://doi.org/10.3917/mav.025.0144

BAREL, A. O., Paye, M., Maibach, H. I. (2009). Handbook of cosmetic science and technology. New York: Informa Healthcare. pp. 1-3, 121-134.

BARROSO, W. (2011). News from Latin America. World Patent Information, 33 (2), 208-209. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.wpi.2011.01.006

BASRA, M. K. A. and Shahrukh, M. (2009). Burden of skin diseases. Expert Review of Pharmacoeconomics & Outcomes Research, 9 (3), 271-283. http://doi.org/10.1586/erp.09.23

BESSANT, J., Tidd, J. (2009). Inovação e empreendedorismo. Porto Alegre, Brazil: Bookman. pp. 19-49.

BIRD, K. (2011). Natura accused of not respecting Brazil's biodiversity laws. Cosmetics Design USA. http://www.cosmeticsdesign.com/Market-Trends/Natura-accused-of-not-respecting-Brazil-s-biodiversity-laws [Accessed September 2, 2013].

BRAZIL (1996). Law No. 9279, May 14, 1996. Regulates rights and obligations relating to industrial property. http://www.inpi.gov.br/images/stories/Lei9279-ingles.pdf [Accessed December 5, 2012].

BRAZIL (2001). Provisional Act No. 2186-16, August 23, 2001. Regulates access to genetic heritage and to associated traditional knowledge. http://www.mma.gov.br/estruturas/sbf_dpg/_arquivos/mp2186i.pdf [Accessed December 5, 2012].

BRAZIL (2004). Law No. 10973, December 2, 2004. Provides incentives for innovation and scientific and technological research. http://www.planalto.gov.br/ccivil_03/_ato2004-2006/2004/lei/l10.973.htm [Accessed July 7, 2013].

BRAZIL (2005). Law No. 11196, November 21, 2005. Regulates taxation. http://www.planalto.gov.br/ccivil_03/_ato2004-2006/2005/lei/l11196.htm [Accessed July 7, 2013].

BRAZIL (2006). Brazilian National Institute of Industrial Property. Resolution n° 134, December 13, 2006. Regulates patent application procedure comprising access to components of the national genetic heritage. http://www.wipo.int/edocs/lexdocs/laws/pt/br/br102pt.pdf [Accessed July 7, 2013].

BRAZIL (2009). Brazilian Agency for Industrial Development. Estudo prospectivo: higiene pessoal, perfumaria e cosméticos. http://www.abdi.com.br/Paginas/estudo.aspx [Accessed August 16, 2011].

BRAZIL (2010a). Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics. Pesquisa de Inovação Tecnológica – 2008. http://www.ibge.gov.br/home/estatistica/economia/industria/pintec/2008/default.shtm [Accessed November 07, 2011].

BRAZIL (2010b). Ministry of the Environment. Fourth national report to the Convention on Biological Diversity – Brazil. http://www.cbd.int/doc/world/br/br-nr-04-en.pdf [Accessed July 7, 2013].

BRAZIL (2013a). Brazilian National Institute of Industrial Property. Conheça o INPI. http://www.inpi.gov.br/portal/artigo/conheca_o_inpi [Accessed July 7, 2013].

BRAZIL (2013b). Brazilian National Institute of Industrial Property. Resolution n°69, March 18, 2013. Regulates patent application procedure comprising access to components of the national genetic heritage. http://www.inpi.gov.br/images/stories/downloads/pdf/Normas_Auditoria_Final_15_3_2013_C.pdf. [Accessed July 7, 2013].

BRAZIL (2013c). Funding for Studies and Projects. Chamadas públicas vigentes. http://www.finep.gov.br/editais/vigentes.asp. [Accessed September 16, 2013].

BRAZIL (2014a). Blog – RHAE – Pesquisador na Empresa. http://www.cnpq.br/web/guest/blog. [Accessed January 16, 2014].

BRAZIL (2014b). Brasil Maior. http://www.brasilmaior.mdic.gov.br. [Accessed January 14, 2014].

BRAZIL (2014c). INCA – Tipos de câncer. http://www2.inca.gov.br/wps/wcm/connect/tiposdecancer/site/home. [Accessed January 20, 2014].

BRAZIL (2014d). Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation. Brasil: dispêndio nacional em ciência e tecnologia (C&T), 2000-2011. http://www.mct.gov.br/index.php/content/view/9058/Brasil_Dispendio_nacional_em_ciencia_e_tecnologia_C_T_sup_1_sup_.html. [Accessed January 29, 2014].

BRAZILIAN ASSOCIATION OF THE INDUSTRIES OF PERSONAL HYGIENE, PERFUMERY AND COSMETICS – ABIHPEC (2014). Panorama do setor 2012: higiene pessoal, perfumaria e cosméticos. http://www.abihpec.org.br/category/publicacoes/panorama-do-setor/ [Accessed January 17, 2014].

CONCEIÇÃO, E. C., Gil, E. S., Garrote, C. F. D., Oliveira, A., Santana, J. C., Silva, E. C. (2007). Creme hidratante (emulsão cosmética) contendo óleo de sementes de guariroba (Syagrusoleracea Becc.). Patent BRPI0701215-2 A2.

CORREA, M. P. & Pires, L. C. M. (2013). Doses of erythemal ultraviolet radiation observed in Brazil. International Journal of Dermatology, 52 (8), 966-973. http://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-4632.2012.05834.x

DEORSOLA, A. B., Rodrigues, A. D., Polato, C. M. S., Dupim, L. C. O., Amorim, R. M., Bencke, S. G., Winter, E. (2013). Patent documents as a technology mapping tool in the Brazilian energy sector focused on the oil, gas and coke industries. World Patent Information, 35 (1), 42-51. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.wpi.2012.10.006

DUNAGAN, M. (2009). Bioprospection versus biopiracy and the United States versus Brazil: attempts at creating an intellectual property system applicable worldwide when differing views are worlds appart – and irreconcilable? Law and Business Review of the Americas, 15 (3), 603-629.

DUQUIA, R. P., Menezes, A. M. B., Reichert, F. F., Almeida-Jr., H. L. (2007). Prevalence and associated factors with sunscreen use in Southern Brazil: a population-based study. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology, 57 (1), 73-80. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaad.2007.03.012

EDMONDS, A. (2010). Pretty Modern: Beauty, Sex, and Plastic Surgery in Brazil. Durham: Duke University Press.

EFRAT, K. (2014). The direct and indirect impact of culture on innovation. Technovation, 34 (1), 12-20. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.technovation.2013.08.003

FREITAS, I. M. B., Marques, R. A., Silva, E. M. P. (2013). University-industry collaboration and innovation in emergent and mature industries in new industrialized countries. Research Policy, 42 (2), 443-453. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.respol.2012.06.006

GARCIA, D., Domingues, M. V., Rodrigues, E. (2010). Ethnopharmacological survey among migrants living in the Southeast Atlantic Forest of Diadema, São Paulo, Brazil. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine, 6: 29. http://doi.org/10.1186/1746-4269-6-29

GAO, L., Porter, A. L., Wang, J., Fang, S., Zhang, X., Ma, T., Wang, W., Huang, L. (2013). Technology life cycle analysis method based on patent documents. Technological Forecasting & Social Change, 80 (3), 398-407. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.techfore.2012.10.003

GILABERTE, Y., González, S. (2010). Update on photoprotection. Actas Dermo-Sifiliográficas, 101 (8), 659-672. http://doi.org/10.1016/s1578-2190(10)70696-x

GOUVEIA, F. (2007). Inovação e patentes: o tempo de maturação no Brasil. Inovação Uniemp, 3 (3), 24-25.

GREEN, A., Williams, G., Nèale, R., Hart, V., Leslie, D., Parsons, P., Marks, G. C., Gaffney, P., Battistutta, D., Frost, C., Lang, C., Russell, A. (1999). Daily sunscreen application and betacarotene supplementation in prevention of basal-cell and squamous-cell carcinomas of the skin: a randomised controlled trial. The Lancet, 354 (9180), 723-729. http://doi.org/10.1016/s0140-6736(98)12168-2

HAUPT, R., Kloyer, M., Lange, M. (2007). Patent indicators for the technology life cycle development. Research Policy, 36 (3), 387-398. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.respol.2006.12.004

HAYASHI, N., Imori, M., Yanagisawa, M., Seto, Y., Nagata, O., Kawashima, M. (2005). Make-up improves the quality of life of acne patients without aggravating acne eruptions during treatments. European Journal of Dermatology, 15 (4), 284-287.

HILL, S. E., Rodeheffer, C. D., Griskevicius, V., Durante, K., White, A. E. (2012). Boosting beauty in an economic decline: mating, spending, and the lipstick effect. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 103 (2), 275-291. http://doi.org/10.1037/a0028657

JORGE, A. T. S., Arroteia, K. F., Santos, Í. A., Andres, E., Medina, S. P. H., Ferrari, C. R., Lourenço, C. B., Biaggio, R. M. T. T., Moreira, P. L. (2012). Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi extract and linoleic acid from Passiflora edulis synergistically decrease melanin synthesis in B16 cells and reconstituted epidermis. International Journal of Cosmetic Science, 34 (5), 435-440. http://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-2494.2012.00736.x

LU, B. (2013). Expedited patent examination for green inventions: developing countries' policy choices. Energy Policy, 61, 1529-1538. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2013.06.028

MADEIRA, L. S., Borschiver, S., Pereira-Jr., N. (2013). On the assignment of biopharmaceutical patents. Technological Forecasting & Social Change, 80 (5), 932-943. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.techfore.2012.10.016

MAGALHÃES, W. V., Baby, A. R., Velasco, M. V. R., Pereira, D. M. M., Kaneko, T. M. (2011). Patenting in the cosmetic sector: study of the use of herbal extracts. Brazilian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 47 (4), 693-700. http://doi.org/10.1590/S1984-82502011000400005

MALLON, E., Newton, J. N., Klassen, A., Stewart-Brown, S. L., Ryan, T. J., Finlay, A. Y. (1999). The quality of life in acne: a comparison with general medical conditions using generic questionnaires. British Journal of Dermatology, 140 (4), 672-676. http://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2133.1999.02768.x

MATA, N. D. S., Sousa, R. S., Perazzo, F. F., Carvalho, J. C. T. (2012). The participation of Wajãpi women from the State of Amapá (Brazil) in the traditional use of medicinal plants – a case study. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine, 8: 48. http://doi:10.1186/1746-4269-8-48

MATIAS-PEREIRA, J. (2011). A gestão do sistema de proteção à propriedade intelectual no Brasil é consistente? Revista de Administração Pública, 45 (3), 567-590. http://doi.org/10.1590/s0034-76122011000300002

MEJER, M., de la Potterie, B. P. (2011). Patent backlogs at USPTO and EPO: systemic failure vs deliberate delays. World Patent Information, 33 (2), 122-127. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.wpi.2010.12.004

MENDES, L., Amorim-Borher, B., Lage, C. (2013). Patent applications on representative sectors of biotechnology in Brazil: an analysis of the last decade. Journal of Technology Management & Innovation, 8 (4), 91-102. http://doi.org/10.4067/S0718-27242013000500009

MOSER, P. (2013). Patents and innovation: evidence from economic history. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 27 (1), 23-44. http://doi.org/10.1257/jep.27.1.23

NOGUEIRA, R. C., Cerqueira, H. F., Soares, M. B. (2010). Patenting bioactive molecules from biodiversity: the Brazilian experience. Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Patents, 20 (2), 145-157. http://doi.org/10.1517/13543770903555221

ROS-TONEN, M. A. F., van Andel, T., Morsello, C., Otsuki, K., Rosendo, S., Scholz, I. (2008). Forest-related partnerships in Brazilian Amazonia: there is more to sustainable forest management than reduced impact logging. Forest Ecology and Management, 256 (7), 1482-1497. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2008.02.044

RYAN, M. P. (2010). Patent incentives, technology markets, and public-private bio-medical innovation networks in Brazil. World Development, 38 (8), 1082-1093. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.worlddev.2009.12.013

SOUZA, I. D. S., Pinheiro, B. J., Takahashi, V. P. (2012a). A patent survey case: how could technological forecasting help cosmetic chemists with product innovation. Journal of Cosmetic Science, 63, 365-383.

SOUZA, I. D. S., Pinheiro, B. J., Takahashi, V. P. (2012b). Tendências e benchmarking no setor cosmético. Cosmetics & Toiletries Brasil, 24 (3), 38-46.

UNITED NATIONS – UN (2011). Nagoya protocol – on access to genetic resources and the fair and equitable sharing on benefits arising from their utilization – to the Convention on Biological Diversity. http://www.cbd.int/abs/ [Accessed August 19, 2013].

VARRICHIO, P., Diogenes, D., Jorge, A., Garnica, L. (2012). Collaborative networks and sustainable business: a case study in the Brazilian system of innovation. Procedia: Social and Behavioral Sciences, 52, 90-99. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2012.09.445

WEISS, N., Jeffrey, P. (2011). Brazil: Brazil announces new incentives to boost competitiveness of national goods. International Tax Review. http://www.internationaltaxreview.com/IssueArticle/2909570/Archive/Brazil-Brazil-announces-new-incentives-to-boost-competitiveness-of-national-goods.html [Accessed January 16, 2014].

WONGLIMPIYARAT, J. (2006). The dynamic economic engine at Silicon Valley and US Government programmes in financing innovations. Technovation, 26 (9), 1081-1089. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.technovation.2005.09.005

WORLD INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY ORGANIZATION – WIPO (2013a). International Patent Classification. http://www.wipo.int/classifications/ipc/en/ [Accessed September 16, 2013].

WORLD INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY ORGANIZATION – WIPO (2013b). Statistical Country Profiles. http://www.wipo.int/ipstats/en/statistics/country_profile/countries/br.html [Accessed July 7, 2013].

WORLD INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY ORGANIZATION – WIPO (2013c). The international patent system – monthly statistics report. http://www.wipo.int/ipstats/en/statistics/pct/ [Accessed September 16, 2013].




How to Cite

Souza, I. D. da S., Almeida, T. L., & Takahashi, V. P. (2014). Will Governmental Incentives in Developing Countries Support Companies to Innovate More? Evidences from Skin Care Patent Applications in Brazil. Journal of Technology Management & Innovation, 9(3), 1–20. https://doi.org/10.4067/S0718-27242014000300001



Research Articles

Similar Articles

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 > >> 

You may also start an advanced similarity search for this article.