The “Athena Paradox:” Bridging the Gender Gap in Science.


  • Henry Etzkowitz Business School, Newcastle University, United Kingdom


Science is fraught with gender inequities that depress women’s professional careers and invade their personal space, as well (Tri-national Conference (2003); Commission on Professionals in Science and Technology, 2004; Rosser, 2004). For example, female PhD students in the U.S. are often excluded from the informal social groupings that advance professional socialization (Etzkowitz, Kemelgor and Uzzi, 2000). Not too long ago, a party celebrating the completion of the PhD by a female scientist in Brazil was interrupted by word that her husband was filing for divorce, apparently unable to countenance her rise in status symbolized by attainment of an advanced degree. A “gender tax” in evaluation of scientific work has been identified in experiments that assign the same paper to male and female authors.


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Author Biography

Henry Etzkowitz, Business School, Newcastle University, United Kingdom

Henry Etzkowitz Professor Henry Etzkowitz, Chair, Management of Innovation, Creativity and Enterprise, University of Newcastle upon Tyne Business School and Technology and Society department, School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Stony Brook University, USA




How to Cite

Etzkowitz, H. (2007). The “Athena Paradox:” Bridging the Gender Gap in Science. Journal of Technology Management & Innovation, 2(1), 1–3. Retrieved from