Journal of Technology Management & Innovation <p>JOTMI is a quarterly indexed electronic journal, refereed and edited by Business and Economy Faculty at Alberto Hurtado University. Its mission is to publish original and novel literature in the fields of technology management and innovation; putting emphasis in topics relevant in a global fashion, remarking in Latin-Ibero-America and the Caribbean. The objective of the journal is to analyze the impact that global technological change has on society and to disseminate the best management practices of companies and organizations.</p> Facultad de Economía y Negocios, Universidad Alberto Hurtado en-US Journal of Technology Management & Innovation 0718-2724 <p class="mceContentBody " dir="ltr">&nbsp;Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:</p> <ol type="a"> <ol type="a"> <li class="show">Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a <a href="" target="_new">Creative Commons Attribution License</a> that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.</li> <li class="show">Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.</li> <li class="show">Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See <a href="" target="_new">The Effect of Open Access</a>).</li> </ol> </ol> <!--<rdf:RDF xmlns="" xmlns:dc="" xmlns:rdf=""> <Work rdf:about=""><license rdf:resource="" ></license></Work><License rdf:about=""> <requires rdf:resource="" ></requires> <permits rdf:resource="" ></permits> <permits rdf:resource="" ></permits> <permits rdf:resource="" ></permits> <requires rdf:resource="" ></requires> </License> </rdf:RDF> --> Los desafíos de la innovación en Latinoamérica <p>Actualmente, la innovación es considerada un imperativo estratégico para alcanzar el desarrollo económico y es la mejor opción para enfrentar los desafíos del futuro. Por ello, el estudio y el análisis de sus resultados constituyen una actividad relevante para el mundo académico, para el diseño de políticas públicas y para las revistas que difunden dicha información.</p> <p>Uno de los referentes más importantes en esta materia es el Índice Global de Innovación (GII) . Este informe, proporciona valores detallados sobre el desempeño de la innovación en 129 economías del mundo. Sus 80 indicadores aportan una visión amplia de la innovación, lo que incluye al entorno político, la educación, la infraestructura y la sofisticación del mercado entre otros.</p> Alejandro Jiménez Montecinos Cristian Geldes Copyright (c) 2019-12-12 2019-12-12 14 4 3 5 Exploration and Exploitation in Latin American Firms: The Determinants of Organizational Ambidexterity and The Country Effect In this article, we explore the determinants of organizational ambidexterity across Latin American countries -Chile, Ecuador, and Peru- from innovation surveys of 2,786 manufacturing companies. The study introduces valuable information on ambidextrous organizations in emerging economies, contrasting to traditional literature frequently focusing on developed countries. Findings confirm the importance to measure ambidexterity in a multidimensional perspective, relating exploration to radical innovation, and breaking down exploitation into incremental exploitation, related to incremental innovation and repetitive exploitation related to operational efficiency. This work also finds that higher GDP per capita relates to higher exploration and exploitation ability of firms and supported our hypotheses that political and economic uncertainty of each country impact on organizational ambidexterity. Additionally, we expand on Diaz-Molina´s model (2018), on the relationship between strategic and operational absorptive capacity on ambidexterity by validating his findings across several countries and uncovering a positive interaction term between strategic and operational absorptive capacity when both impact on ambidexterity. Juan Acevedo Iván Díaz-Molina Copyright (c) 2019-12-12 2019-12-12 14 4 6 16 The Relationship between Trade Unions and Innovation in Chile. <p>This article examines how and to what extent unions affect companies' innovation in Chile. It contributes to the existing literature in the following two aspects: First, because it widens the scope of analysis focusing in a developing country that is characterized by some specificities regarding the innovation as well the union landscape. Second, because this paper takes into account the effect of unions in the different types of innovation proposed in the Oslo Manual by OECD.&nbsp; Results show that unions do not affect product and process innovation while influence to organizational innovation and marketing in a non-linear way.</p> Goretti Cabaleiro Francisca Gutiérrez Copyright (c) 2019-12-12 2019-12-12 14 4 17 30 The Impact of Cooperation on Business Innovation in Developing Countries: Evidence from Chile Latin America <p>There is abundant empirical evidence supporting the relationship between cooperation and innovative entrepreneurial activity, but the conversation continues to be limited to the context of developing countries. This study contributes to the academic debate on this topic with an empirical evaluation of the effect of cooperation networks on innovation, using Chile in Latin America as a case study. Furthermore, while previous studies mainly refer to technological innovations in a particular industrial sector, in this paper we will build an innovation measurement system that incorporates both technological and non-technological activities among diverse industrial sectors. Upon applying cross-sectional data from a national survey on innovation in a developing firm from two different years to a zero-inflated negative binomial regression, we found that a business that reports on cooperation conducts more innovative activities per year compared to one that does not. The type of agent that a business cooperates with is also relevant in this context; other businesses, clients, and consultants showed stronger and more stable results than other types of agents. This evidence is relevant as it presents new information about the importance of the type of agent that a business cooperates with in the context of developing countries.</p> Rodrigo Alberto Fuentes Ariel Soto-Caro Dusan Paredes Copyright (c) 2019-12-12 2019-12-12 14 4 31 40 El papel de la Cooperación para Desarrollar Innovación Tecnológica en la PYME <p>La innovación se ha consolidado como una vía para mejorar el desempeño de las economías. El objetivo del estudio es analizar el rol de las cooperaciones y los efectos en la innovación tecnológica y el desempeño de las empresas aplicando PLS-SEM. Para probar el modelo se utilizó la décima encuesta de innovación del Ministerio de Economía de Chile, levantada durante el año 2017. Los resultados muestran que la cooperación comercial y cooperación profesional tienen efecto en la innovación tecnológica, sin embargo, la cooperación académica no produce efecto significativo. Se han identificado acciones que permitan mejorar el sistema de innovación.</p> Mauricio Castillo-Vergara Enrique Aranibar Torres Copyright (c) 2019-12-12 2019-12-12 14 4 41 53 How Innovation Influences on Export Performance: A Configuration Approach for Emerging Economies This study examines innovation on export performance under competitive strategies, institutional factors and marketing capability. We collect the information from 201 firms through surveys of four countries: Brazil, Mexico, Chile, and Peru, and we use a novel method approach (qualitative comparative analysis) to analyze how these antecedents combined to lead to the export performance. We found that the technological capability degree depends on the export market. In developed markets, firms need low technological capability, contrary when firms export to developing countries firms needs to develop high degree of technological capability. Besides, the technological capability needs to configure with implementation of strategies depends on institutional factors and marketing capability. Jorge Heredia Alejandro Flores Walter Heredia Rocío Arango Lisbeth Medina Copyright (c) 2019-12-12 2019-12-12 14 4 54 65 Portfolio Evaluation of Academic Patent: A Proposal to Brazil In the current context of scarce financial resources, technology transfer offices are pressured to find ways to increase revenues through technology transfers or reduce expenses with their portfolio of technologies, especially patents. The Patent assessment seeks to detect the market potential of patents for transfer through licensing, abandonment, or maintenance. In this context, the objective of this study is to validate the leading indicators used in the patent evaluation to develop a framework for evaluating academic patent portfolio in the Brazilian context. For this, we used mapping and analysis methods of the current models besides focus group consultations, exploratory factorial analysis, and Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) to validate the indicators. The results show that seven factors are determinant in the evaluation of academic patents, having positive implications for the management of Intellectual Property since technology transfer decision-makers can use the factors and their identified weights as value indicators to evaluate patents with the most significant market potential. Rafael Angelo Santos Leite Iracema Machado de Aragão Suzana Leitão Russo Cícero Eduardo Sousa Walter Copyright (c) 2019-12-12 2019-12-12 14 4 66 77 The Knowledge Body of Requirement Engineering in IST Innovations: An Ontological Analysis Requirement Engineering is considered a key factor for Information Systems and Technology (IST) success in innovation. After roughly 40 years, important questions about the impact of RE in innovations remains. Literature review and bibliometric reports are well-known techniques for describing the state of the art; however, both can cover what has been done, but fail to identify the less developed areas. An alternative method is used to describe the whole knowledge body of RE (KBoRE) for IST innovations, and then systematically identify the most, less and uncovered areas. This paper proposes an Ontological framework of the KBoRE for IST innovations, by decomposing it through the identification of taxonomies and concepts that represent the field. Then, we apply the ontology to map articles from SCOPUS and WoS databases. Results reveal emphases that help to design research agendas and feed the KBoRE for IST Innovations to fill the gaps between the academic curiosity and the industry progress. Jonathan Patricio Vasquez Ariel La Paz Copyright (c) 2019-12-12 2019-12-12 14 4 78 84 La Heterogeneidad de los Servicios Intensivos en Conocimiento: El Caso de Argentina El presente artículo busca contribuir al debate acerca de la heterogeneidad entre los servicios intensivos en conocimiento (SIC), sobre la base de una fuente de información novedosa que nos permite no sólo estudiar las características de los SIC a un mayor nivel de desagregación que el utilizado comúnmente en la literatura internacional, sino también analizar estas actividades en el marco de un país en desarrollo como la Argentina. Mediante una combinación de técnicas de análisis multivariado obtenemos una tipología empírica que nos brinda una visión más clara sobre los puntos en común y las diferencias entre los distintos tipos de SIC identificados. Esta contribución no sólo es útil para el mejor análisis de estos sectores, que han ganado fuerte peso en la economía global, sino también para los tomadores de decisión, ya que son muchos los países que están implementando políticas de desarrollo productivo dirigidas a los SIC. Andrés López Andrés Niembro Copyright (c) 2019-12-12 2019-12-12 14 4 85 99 Does Investment in Advertising Boost Economic Performance? Firm-Level Evidence of Ecuadorian Manufacturing This paper examines how the firm´s advertising investments are related to different measures of economic and productivity performance during 2007 – 2017 in Ecuadorian manufacturing. Particularly, this study analyzes if firms that have advertising investments have better economic and productivity performance compare to non-advertising investment firms. In addition, this looks for evidence on how the different advertising strategies may affect productivity and gross revenue in both advertising and non-advertising firms. For this, this paper estimates the total factor productivity (TFP) at firm-level using a semi-parametric approach to reduce the simultaneous and endogeneity problems in the selection of inputs. The estimation results show that manufacturing firms which invest in advertising have an Advertising Premia on economic and productivity indicators, this premia is higher on economic outcomes. Also, the findings are that continuing advertising investment strategy firms have higher TFP, labor productivity, and gross revenue than exiting advertising investment firms, suggesting self-selection in the exit side of the market but not in the entry side of the market. Finally, the study finds that after firms entering to invest in advertising, firms experience an improvement on TFP, labor productivity, and gross revenue growth, which are in favor of learning by advertising hypothesis. Segundo Camino-Mogro Copyright (c) 2019-12-12 2019-12-12 14 4 100 118 Componentes del Ecosistema de Emprendimiento de Lima que Inciden en Crecimiento y Desarrollo de Startups Los ecosistemas de emprendimiento impulsan la competitividad de las startups y estas, a su vez, contribuyen al progreso y bienestar socio-económico. Por ello, el interés en estudiar los componentes del ecosistema de emprendimiento de Lima que inciden en el crecimiento y desarrollo de startups. En febrero 2017, una muestra de 137 startups vinculadas a Innóvate Perú, respondieron un cuestionario. Posteriormente se efectuó un análisis factorial exploratorio –con método ACP– un análisis de clústeres, un ANOVA unidireccional y tablas cruzadas. Se identificaron dos componentes y tres clústeres, caracterizados por la antigüedad y el sector productivo de la startup. Los hallazgos sugieren que la incidencia de los componentes, depende de la fase del proceso de emprendimiento en que se encuentre la startup. Karen Edith Weinberger Villaran Copyright (c) 2019-12-12 2019-12-12 14 4 119 136 Assessing the Impacts of Market Failures on Innovation Investment in Uruguay This paper analyzes the effects of financial and nonfinancial obstacles to innovation on Uruguayan firms. We contribute to the literature by including the role of systemic and institutional factors affecting the different stages of the innovation process. The empirical analysis is based on four waves of national innovation surveys covering firms in the industry and services sector. In line with recent studies, we confine our analysis to the relevant sample of potentially innovative firms. Our results show that market, financial, knowledge, and context obstacles are the most important factors reducing innovation propensity and the amount invested in innovation activities. The effects are similar for firms in the industry and services sectors. We do not find evidence that institutional factors hamper innovation. Investment in equipment and investment in R&amp;D and other intangible activities are affected differently by obstacles. On the other hand, innovation outcomes are affected mainly by financial and market-related barriers. We do not find evidence that obstacles to innovation have a significant impact on labor productivity. Daniel Bukstein Elisa Hernández Ximena Usher Copyright (c) 2019-12-12 2019-12-12 14 4 137 157 Input, Output, and Behavioral Additionality of Innovation Subsidies Using a Conditional Difference in Difference procedure and data for Colombia, we determine if firms that receive subsidies to innovation in the period 2010-2016 present additionality on input, output, and behavioral innovation variables. We found that there are differences among the additionalities of small and medium firms (SMEs) and big firms, and the existence of a crowding-out effect for internal R&amp;D expenditures in SMEs. At the same time, we found additionality on R&amp;D employment for all types of firms and the presence of experience effects introduced by subsidies, especially for SMEs. These effects are related to positive additionalities. At the same time, we cannot find additionality effects on patents and trademarks. However, we found negative additionality on sales of big companies that we relate with the way we measure this variable. Edgard Alberto Méndez-Morales Copyright (c) 2019-12-12 2019-12-12 14 4 158 172