Impact of Gender in Adopting and Using ICTS in Spain
AbstractThe main objective of this paper is to analyse the impact of gender in adopting and using new information and communication technologies (ICTs) in Spain. It is widely accepted that men tend to be the first to use new technologies and to gain significant benefits from doing so, both at home and work. However, further research on gender and new technologies, such as ICTs, is still needed in order to better understand differences between men and women. On the one hand we show that percentage of ICTs users is higher among men. On the other hand, our results confirm that women also present lower frequency of ICTs use. We examine how the differences in adoption and use of ICTs are moderated by cultural and socioeconomic aspects. Differences appear mainly in the lower levels of education and in the rural area. Therefore, it highlights the necessity of taking into account those aspects to remove the gender digital divide totally. We also underline the importance of changes in gender roles and the increase of the participation of women in the Spanish labour force.
AOSI (2008). Penetración de Internet en Aragón. Evolución 2004-2007, Observatorio Aragonés de la Sociedad de la Información. Available at: http://www.observatorioaragones.org/estudios/Penetracion2004-2007.pdf
BORGHANS, L., TER WEEL, B. (2005). How computerization has changed the labour market: A review of the evidence and a new perspective.In L. Soete and B. ter Weel (eds.), The economics of the digital society, Edward Elgar: Cheltenham, 219-247, November 2005.
BUCY, E.P. (2000). Social Access to the Internet. Harvard International Journal of press/Politics, 5(1), 50-61.
CASTAÑO, C. (2005). Las Mujeres y las Tecnologías de la Información. Internet y la Trama de Nuestra Vida. Alianza Editorial, Madrid.
DHOLAKIA, R.R. (2004/2005). Gender and Internet Use: Peeking Under the Covers. William A. Orme Working Paper Series, 2004/2005 No. 6. Available at: http://www.cba.uri.edu/offices/research/workingpapers/documents/GenderAndInternetUsePeekingUnderTheCovers.pdf
DHOLAKIA, R.R., KSHETRI, N. (2002). Gender asymmetry in the adoption of internet and e-commerce. Center for Research on Information Technology and Organizations (CRITO). Available at: http://www.crito.uci.edu/noah/HOIT/HOIT%20Papers/Gender%20Asymmetry.pdf
FINK, C., KENNY, C.J. (2003). W(h)Ither the Digital Divide?. Development Gateway, 2003.
KORUPP, S., SZYDLIK, M. (2005). Causes and Trends of the Digital Divide. European Sociological Review, 21(4), 409-22.
KOVA C I C, Z.J., VUKMIROVI C, D. (2008). ICT Adoption and the Digital Divide in Serbia: Factors and Policy Implications. Proceedings of the Informing Science & IT Education Conference (InSITE), available at: http://proceedings.informingscience.org/InSITE2008/InSITE08p363-387Kova540.pdf
MERI, T. (2008). Human Resources employed in Science and Technology Occupations Professionals and Technicians. Eurostat. Statistics in focus 77/2008. Available at: http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/cache/ITY_OFFPUB/KS-SF-08-077/EN/KS-SF-08-077-EN.PDF
OECD (2007). ICTs and Gender. Working Party on the Information Economy, Directorate for Science, Technology and Industry. Committee for Information, Computer and Communication Policy.
RABAN, Y. (2004). e-Living D11.1 – ICT Uptake and Usage: Panel Data Analysis. The e-Living Consortium, IST. Available at: http://www.eurescom.de/e-living
UNDP / UNIFEM (2004). Bridging the Gender Digital Divide. ISBN 92-95042-06-9. Available at: http://web.undp.sk/uploads/Gender%20and%20ICT%20reg_rep_eng.pdf
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).