How Do Managers Control Technology-Intensive Work?
Keywords:Project Management, Control, Self-directed Teams, Project-Matrix Organization, PMBOK, Earned Value Analysis, Project Risk Assessment, Schedule Compression Analysis, Quality Function Deployment, Management Tools.
AbstractTechnology pervades every aspect of the modern business enterprise and demands new strategies for work management. Advances in internet and computing technologies, the emergence of the “knowledge worker”, globalization, resource scarcity, and intense competition have led corporations to accomplish their strategic goals and objectives through the implementation of projects. Project success is assured by the effective use of financial and human resources, a project management (PM) framework backed by senior management, and controls spanning the PM spectrum of initiation; planning; implementation; monitoring, measurement, and control; and closing. As an essential function of management, ‘control’ may be accomplished through a PM Plan, a project-matrix organization, competent and motivated people, and appropriate management tools and techniques. A PM Plan conforming to the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK) framework incorporates controls for the key PM elements and, implemented properly, can assure project success
ALI, A. S., Frank, T, William, H. (2008). Impact of organizational and project factors on acceptance and usage of project management software and perceived project success. Project Management Journal , 39(2), 5-33.
ANANTAMULA, V. S. (2008). The role of technology in the project manager performance model. Project Management Journal, 39(1), 34-48.
BAHEL, J. (2009). Why big IT projects fail. CIO Insight, 103, 14-14.
BARKLEY, B. (2008). Project management and teamwork. Project Management: New Product Development, 303-323. McGraw Hill Professional, New York.
BRADSHAW, G. B. (2008). Establishing a first class project controls organization for managing large complex projects. AACE International Transactions 2008, 1-9.
BRENNER, D. A. (2007). Achieving a successful project by motivating the project team. Cost Engineering, 49(5), 16-20.
CESARONE, J. (2007). Project management by numbers: How Earned Value Analysis can keep you on track. Industrial Engineer, 39(11), 36-41.
DRUCKER, P. (1999). Knowledge worker productivity: The biggest challenge. California Management Review, 41(2), 79-94.
DRUCKER, P. (2000). Challenges for the 21 st century. Tooling & Production, 66(1), 92-97.
FORD, R. C., Randolph, A. W. (1992). Cross-functional structures: A review and integration of Matrix Organization and Project Management. Journal of Management, 18(2), 267-294.
IVORY, C., Alderman, N. (2005). Can Project Management learn anything from studies of failure in complex systems? Project Management Journal, 65(3), 5-16.
MURPHY, A., Ledwith, A. (2007). Project Management tools and techniques in high-technology SMEs. Management Research News, 30(2), 153-166.
PAYNE, S. C., Huffman, A. H. (2005). A longitudinal examination of the influence of mentoring on organizational commitment and turnover. Academy of Management Journal, 48(1), 158-168.
PINTO, M. B., Pinto, J. K., Prescott, J. E. (1993). Antecedents and consequences of project team cross-functional cooperation. Management Science, 39(10), 1281-1297.
POSNER, B. Z., Randolph, A. W. (1979). Perceived situational moderators of the relationship between role ambiguity, job satisfaction, and effectiveness. Journal of Social Psychology, 109, 237-244.
PMI (2008). A guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge. PMBOK Guide – 4 th Ed. Project Management Institute, Newton Square, MA.
PMI (2009). Project Management Institute: Who we are and what we do. http://www.pmi.org/AboutUs/Pages/FactSheet.aspx [Accessed November 23, 2009].
PRYOR, M. G., White, C. J., Toombs, L. A. (2007). A strategic systems approach to continuous improvement. Strategic Quality Management , Cengage Learning, Mason, OH.
SPACE AND NAVAL WARFARE SYSTEMS CENTER (2005). Project management plan template. http://sepo.spawar.navy.mil/PMP_Template.doc#_Toc97025400 [Accessed November 21, 2009].
THAMHAIN, H. J. (1994). Concurrent Engineering: Criteria for effective implementation. Industrial Management, 36(6), 29-29.
THOMAS, M., Jacques, P. H., Adams, J. R., Kihneman-Wooten, J. (2008). Developing an effective project: Planning and team building combined. Project Management Journal, 39(4), 105-113.
WAGEMAN, R. (2001). How leaders foster self-managing team effectiveness: Design Choices versus hands-on coaching. Organization Science, 12(5), 559-577.
How to Cite