Impacts of New Technologies on Free-To-Air Tv Industry: Lessons from Selected Country Cases
Keywords:technological change, diffusion of new technologies, information and communication technologies, free-to-air TV broadcasting, terrestrial television industry, digital terrestrial TV technology, market structure, media plurality or diversity, regulation.
AbstractThis paper aims to examine the impacts of new technologies, especially of the digital TV, on the industry of terrestrial TV in selected countries. Taking the evolution of information and communication technologies (ICTs) as a background scenario, the transformations provoked by digitization of TV on the following aspects are analyzed: (i) the market structure of terrestrial TV (or free-to-air TV broadcasting), (ii) the plurality and diversity of TV programming. Based on secondary data and on recent studies on the technological trajectory of terrestrial TV in selected countries, one concludes that digital TV may provide great opportunities for development in such industry, but the magnitude of its benefits is strongly conditioned by socioeconomic factors and by how the service was regulated. Such findings may contribute to Brazilian debate on development opportunities opened by technological change to the television sector.
ALEXANDER, P. J., Cunningham, B. M. (2004). Diversity in broadcast television: An empirical study of local news. The international journal on media management, 6 (3&4), pp. 176-183.
ALVES, V. H. C. (2009). Preço impede que internet acompanhe expansão de PCs no Brasil. [online] TI Inside Online, 26 mar. Available at: http://www.tiinside.com.br/ [Accessed 24 March 2009].
BAJON, J., Villaret, S. (2004). High-Definition TV: Technological transition or new market? IDATE, Montpellier.
BOLAÑO, C. R. S., Brittos, V. C. (2007). A televisão brasileira na era digital: Exclusão, esfera pública e movimentos estruturantes. Paulus, São Paulo.
CALLON, M. (1987). Society in the making: the study of technology as a tool for sociological analysis. In Bijker, W.E. Hughes, T.P., Pinch, T.F., ed. The Social Construction of Technological Systems: New Directions in the Sociology and History of Technology. The MIT Press, pp. 83-103.
EUROPEAN COMMISSION (2003). On the transition from analogue to digital broadcasting (from digital switchover' to analogue switch-off'). COM(2003) 541. European Commission, Brussels.
EUROPEAN COMMISSION (2007). Media pluralism in the member states of the European Union. Commission Staff Working Document. European Commission, Brussels.
EINSTEIN, M. (2004). Broadcast network television, 1955-2003: The pursuit of advertising and the decline of diversity. Journal of Media Economics, 17 (2), pp. 145-155.
FCC, (2006). Annual assessment of the status of competition in the market for the delivery of video programming (12th. Annual Report). Washington (DC): FCC. Available at: http://www.fcc.gov [Accessed 01 February 2007].
GALPERIN, H., (2003). Comunicación e integración en la era digital: un balance de la transición hacia la televisión digital en Brasil Y Argentina. Telos, [e-journal] 55. Available at: http://www.campusred.net/telos [Accessed 12 August 2006].
GALPERIN, H. (2004a). New television, old politics: the transition to digital TV in the United States and Britain. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
GALPERIN, H. (2004b). Beyond interests, ideas and technology: An institutional approach to communication and information policy. The Information Society, 20 (3), pp. 159-168.
GOODWIN, P. (2005). United Kingdom: Never mind the policy, feel the growth. In: A. Brown and R.G. Picard, ed. 2005. Digital terrestrial television in Europe. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers, Mahwah, NJ. pp.151-180.
IDATE. Digiworld, (2007). Telecom, internet, media: The digital world's challenges. Idate, Montpellier.
KATZ, J. (2006). Tecnologías de la información y la comunicación e industrias culturales: Uma perspectiva latinoamericana. Series Cepal Documentos de Proyectos, 92. [Internet] Cepal, Santiago. Available at: http://www.eclac.cl [Accessed 27 October 2006].
LEVY, J., Ford-Livene, M., Levine, A. (2002). Broadcast television: Survivor in a sea of competition. FCC Office of Plans and Policy Working Papers Series, 37. [Internet] FCC, Washington, DC. Available at: http://www.fcc.gov [Accessed 27 October 2006].
MANSELL, R. (2004). Political economy, power and new media. New Media & Society, 6 (1), pp. 96-105.
MOTTA, M., Polo, M. (1997). Beyond the spectrum constraint: Concentration and entry in the broadcasting industry. In: M. Baldassarri, L. Lambertini, ed. 2003. Antitrust, Regulation And Competition. Palgrave Macmillan, pp. 101-134.
NELSON, R. R., Winter, S., (1977). In search of useful theory of innovation. Research Policy, 6 (1), pp. 36-66.
NOAM, E.M. (2006). The concentration of American media industries. In: TPRC (Telecommunications Policy Research Conference), 34th Research Conference on Communication, Information and Internet Policy. Arlington (VA), United States 29 Sep.-01 Oct. TPRC: Farnham (VA).
OECD (2004a). Broadband audio-visual services: Market developments in OECD countries. Working Party on Telecommunications and Information Services Policies. [Internet] OECD, Paris. Available at: http://www.oecd.org [Accessed 31 January 2006].
OECD (2004b). Competition in the video programming distribution market: Implications for regulators. Working Party on Telecommunications and Information Services Policies. [Internet] OECD, Paris. Available at: http://www.oecd.org [Accessed 31 January 2006].
OECD (2007) OECD Communications Outlook 2007. OECD Publishing, Paris.
Ofcom (2006). The Communications Market 2006. [Internet] Ofcom. London. Available at: www.ofcom.org.uk [Accessed 02 October 2006].
Ofcom (2007). The Communications Market 2007. [Internet] Ofcom, London. Available at: http://www.ofcom.org.uk [Accessed 15 July 2008].
Ofcom (2008). The International Communications Market 2008. [Internet] Ofcom, London. Available at: http://www.ofcom.org.uk [Accessed 02 February 2009].
OWEN, B. M., Wildman, S.S. (1992). Video Economics. Harvard University Press, Cambridge (MA), London.
PIZANI, J.I. (2005). TV digital, oportunidade e não um risco. Valor Econômico, 23 March.
PRESTON, P., (2001). Reshaping Communications: Technology, Information and Social Change. Sage Publications, London & Thousand Oaks, CA.
RAVEN, J., Hoehn, T., Lancefield, D., Robinson, B. (2004). Economic analysis of the tv advertising market. [Internet] PriceWaterhouseCoopers. Available at: http://www.ofcom.org.uk [Accessed 05 January 2005].
SHAPIRO, C., Varian, H.R., (1999). Information Rules: a Strategic Guide to the Network Economy. Harvard Business School Press, Boston, MA.
TODREAS, T., (1999). Value creation and branding in television's digital age. Quorum Books, Westport, CT
Unctad, (2004). Creative Industries and Development. [Internet] Unctad Eleventh session. Unctad, São Paulo. Available at: http://www.unctad.org [Accessed 07 April 2008]
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2009 Journal of Technology Management & Innovation
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.