Causation and Effectuation: Exploratory Study of New Zealand Entrepreneurs

Lauren Pfeffer, Mohammad Saud Khan


The aim of this paper is to explore the decision-making processes of causation and effectuation within New Zealand entrepreneurs. One-on-one, semi structured interviews were conducted to investigate; the extent of Causation and Effectuation followed by entrepreneurial start-ups in years four to eight of operation? In Addition, whether decision-making process and perceptions of market uncertainty differ across industries? Findings indicate that effectuation was predominantly followed. This research extrapolates new, key themes regarding decision-making. The decision-making process was largely seen as entirely subjective and dependent on the personality of the entrepreneur, their opportunity recognition experience and ideals of running the business.


Causation, Effectuation, Entrepreneurship, Innovation, Decision Making

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