Development of a Biomedical Innovation Economy-Panama

Markus Dettenhofer, Nora Hampl

Abstract


In this study we consider the progress toward the development of innovation incubators within the Central American country of Panama. We attempt to identify the extent to which Panama, as a developing country with a small market size, has recognized the importance of technology and innovation in its efforts to build a sustainable economy. We examined the “Triple Helix” government-academia-industry model (Etzkowitz, 2008), and applied it to the bioscience sector, while also incorporating the role of foreign collaborators. By reinforcing and maintaining synergies among all stakeholders, while also concentrating resources in the areas of strengths and increasing R&D expenditures, Panama could become a key regional player in the bioscience sector. Examples of cooperative research innovation are highlighted, and suggestions are made to enhance their commercialization potential.

Keywords


panama; bioscience; development; synergistic coordination.

Full Text:

PDF [en]

References


AROCENA, R., Sutz, J. (2000). Interactive learning spaces and development problems, Druid Working Paper . http://www.druid.dk/wp/pdf_files/00-13.pdf (accessed February 26, 2009).

AUDRETSCH, D. B., Thurik, A. R. (2000). Capitalism and democracy in the 21st Century: from the managed to the entrepreneurial economy. Journal of Evolutionary Economics 10, 1-2, 17-34.

BEATTIE, A., Barthlott, W., Elisabetsky, E., Farrel, R., Kheng, C. T., Prance, I., Rosenthal, J., Simpson, D., Leakey, R., Wolfson, M., Kate, K. (2005). New products and industries from biodiversity. In: Hassan, R., Scholes, R., Ash, N. (eds). Millennium ecosystem assessment, ecosystems and human well-being, vol. 1. Island Press, Washington, D. C.

BOK, D. (2003). Universities in the marketplace. Princeton University Press, Princeton.

BROWN, J. S., and Duguid, P. (2002). Local knowledge. Management Learning 33, 4, 427-437.

CIMOLI, M., Primi, A., Casalet, M. (2005). National strategic plan for the development of science, technology and innovation, 2006-2010 . SENACYT, Republic of Panama.

COOKE, P. (2007). Growth Cultures: The global bioeconomy and its bioregions. Routledge, New York.

ETZKOWITZ, H. (2008). The Triple Helix: University-industry-government innovation in action. Routledge, New York.

ETZKOWITZ, H. (2004). The evolution of the entrepreneurial university. International Journal of Technology and Globalisation 1, 1, 64-77.

FURLONG, W. (2000). Panama, a nation apart: its foreign policy and its challenges. In Perez, O. J. (ed.) Post-invasion Panama-the challenges of democratization in the new world order. Lexington Books, Lanham, Maryland.

GAL, M. S. (2003). Competition policy for small market economies. Harvard University Press, Cambridge.

GETZ, K. A. (2006). CRO contribution to drug development is substantial and growing globally. Impact Report 8 , 1–4.

HALL, B. H. (2002). The Financing of Research and Development. Oxford Review of Economic Policy 18 , 35-51.

KIM, L. (1993). National systems of industrial innovation. Dynamics of capability building in Korea. In Nelson, R. (ed). National innovation systems. A comparative analysis , Oxford University Press, New York.

KUSAR, T. A., Caballero-George, C. C., Capson, T. L., Cubilla-Rios, L., Gerwick, W. H., Ibañez, A., Linington, R. G., McPhail, K. L., Ortega-Barría, E., Romero, L. I., Coley, P. D. (2007). Linking biosprospecting with sustainable development and conservation: the Panama case. Biodiversity Conservation 10, Online.

MARQUES, R. (2007). The Brazilian system of innovation in biotechnology: a preliminary study. Journal of Technology Management & Innovation 2, 55-63.

MYTELKA, L. (2006). Pathways and policies to biopharmaceutical innovation systems in developing countries. Industry & Innovation 13, 415-436.

Organization For Economic Co-Operation And Development. Conference for Ministers responsible for SMEs and Industry Ministers (OECD, Bologna, 2000). Enhancing the competitiveness of SMEs in the global economy: strategies and policies http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/19/53/2012844.pdf (accessed April 20, 2009).

Organization For Economic Co-Operation And Development. OECD Main Science and Technology Indicators , 2004 Edition (OECD, Paris, 2004).

PÉREZ, O. J. (2000). Democratization and economic development: challenges and opportunities for the next century. In Perez, O. J. (ed.) Post-invasion Panama-the challenges of democratization in the new world order . Lexington Books, Lanham, Maryland.

PORTER, G., Bird, N., Kaur N., Peskett, L. (2008). New Finance for Climate Change and the Environment. http://www.worldwildlife.org/what/howwedoit/conservationfinance/WWFBinaryitem10912.pdf (accessed April 19, 2009).

PORTER, M. E. (1998). The competitive advance of nations. The Free Press. New York.

POWERS, D. R., Powers, M. F. (1988). Part one: making partnerships work: objectives, approaches, and strategies. In Powers, D. R., Powers, M. F., Betz, F., and Aslanian, C. B. (eds.) Higher education in partnership with industry. Jossey-Bass Inc., San Francisco.

REZAIE, R., Frew, S. E., Sammut, S. M., Maliakkal, M. R., Daar, A. S., Singer, P. A. (2008). Brazil health biotech-fostering crosstalk between public and private sectors. Nature Biotechnology 26, 6, 627-644.

ROSENTHAL, J. P., Katz, F. N. (2004). Natural products research partnerships with multiple objectives in global biodiversity hotspots: Nine years of the International Cooperative Biodiversity Groups Program. In: Bull, A. (ed) Microbial diversity and bioprospecting . ASM Press, Washington DC.

SHAH, S. (2003). Globalization of clinical research by the pharmaceutical industry. International Journal of Health Services 33 , 29–36.

United States Department of State, Background Notes: Panama . (March 2009). http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/2030.htm (accessed April 17, 2009).

VILLAVICENCIO, D., Chiapa, A. (2006). http://portal.unesco.org/education/en/files/55577 (access December 12, 2008).

WEMMER, C., Rudran, R., Dallmeier, F., Wilson, D. E. (1993). Training developing-country nationals is the critical ingredient to conserving global biodiversity . Bioscience 43, 11, 762-767.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4067/S0718-27242009000200002



Copyright (c)



2017 © Universidad Alberto Hurtado - Facultad de Economía y Negocios. 
Erasmo Escala 1835 - Santiago, Chile.
Economic Analysis Review | Observatorio Económico | Gestión y Tendencias 

Journal Supported by Chimera Innova Group