Development of a Biomedical Innovation Economy-Panama


  • Markus Dettenhofer Harvard Medical School
  • Nora Hampl Harvard University



panama, bioscience, development, synergistic coordination.


In this study we consider the progress toward the development of innovation incubators within the Central American country of Panama. We attempt to identify the extent to which Panama, as a developing country with a small market size, has recognized the importance of technology and innovation in its efforts to build a sustainable economy. We examined the “Triple Helix” government-academia-industry model (Etzkowitz, 2008), and applied it to the bioscience sector, while also incorporating the role of foreign collaborators. By reinforcing and maintaining synergies among all stakeholders, while also concentrating resources in the areas of strengths and increasing R&D expenditures, Panama could become a key regional player in the bioscience sector. Examples of cooperative research innovation are highlighted, and suggestions are made to enhance their commercialization potential.


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Author Biographies

Markus Dettenhofer, Harvard Medical School

Harvard Medical School

Nora Hampl, Harvard University

Harvard University


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How to Cite

Dettenhofer, M., & Hampl, N. (2009). Development of a Biomedical Innovation Economy-Panama. Journal of Technology Management & Innovation, 4(2), 21–32.



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