Knowledge and Cooperation Determinants of Innovation Networks: A Mixed-Methods Approach to the Case of Portugal
Keywords:innovation, innovation networks, innovation system, content analysis, logistic regression.
AbstractSystemic perspectives of innovation integrate complex interrelations among enterprise, science and technology, and governance spheres. Innovation networks are crucial within innovation systems and refer to the linkages of a variety of actors with the purpose of innovation. In this article, the determinants of innovation networks are analyzed using a qualitative original database of online information about 623 organizations in Portugal. A binary econometric regression for all types of entities is estimated. The model underlines that actors using external technologies and promoting knowledge are more likely to innovate. In parallel, actors that are involved in managing and supporting entrepreneurship have a smaller probability to do it. Advanced firms and universities are the actors more willing to dynamically innovate. Specific models for firms and universities create a direct comparison between the determinants in both collectives. While promoting knowledge and specific orientation towards innovation is essential for firms it is not relevant for universities. Managing knowledge is the crucial catalyst for the innovation practices in universities. External technological linkages are essential for both types of actors in the creation of innovation networks. The article concludes with policy implications regarding the support of cooperation activities to instigate innovation.
ASHEIM B (2007) Differentiated Knowledge Bases and Varieties of Regional Knowledge of Regional Innovation systems. The European J Soc. Science Res. 20: 223-241. Doi: 10.1080/13511610701722846
BARDIN L (2006) Análise de conteúdo. Lisboa: Edições 70.
BARRUTIA J and ECHEBARRIA C (2010) Social capital, research and development, and innovation: An empirical analysis of Spanish and Italian regions. European Urban Regional Stud. 17: 371-385. doi:10.1177/0969776409350689
BOSCHMA R (2005) Proximity and innovation. A critical assessment. Regional Stud. 39: 61-74. Doi: 10.1080/0034340052000320887
BRAMANTI A and FRATESI U (2009) The Dynamics of an “Innovation Driven” Territorial Systems In Fratesi U and SENN L (Ed.) Growth and Innovation of Competitive Regions – the Role of Internal and External Connections, Springer: Berlin, pp. 59-91
BRAMANTI, A and RIGGI M (2009) Sustainable Interrelated Growth: A Phenomenal Approach In Fratesi U and Senn L(Ed.) Growth and Innovation of Competitive Regions – the Role of Internal and External Connections, Springer: Berlin, pp. 29-44
CAMAGNI R and CAPELLO R (2009). Knowledge –Based Economy and Knowledge Creation: The Role of Space In Fratesi U and Senn L (Ed.) Growth and Innovation of Competitive Regions – the Role of Internal and External Connections, Springer: Berlin, pp. 145-165
CAPELLO R and NIJKAMP P (2009) Introduction: Regional Growth and Development Theories in Twenty First Century – Recent Theoretical Advances and Future Challenges. In Capello R and Nijkamp P (Ed.) Handbook of Regional Growth and Development Theories, Edgar Elgar Publishing, Massachusetts, pp. 1-18
CAPELLO R (1999) Spatial Transfer of Knowledge in High Technology Milieu: Learning versus Collective Learning Process. Regional Stud. 33: 353-365. Doi: 10.1080/00343409950081211
CAPELLO R (2009a) Spatial Spillovers and Regional Growth: a Cognitive Approach. European Plan. Stud., 17: 640-658. Doi:
CAPELLO R (2009b) Space, Growth and Development. In Capello R and Nijkamp P (Ed.) Handbook of Regional Growth and Development Theories, Edgar Elgar Publishing, Massachusetts, pp. 33-52
CAPPELLIN, R and STEINER M (2002) Enlarging the Scale of Knowledge in Innovation Networks: Theoretical Perspectives and Policy Issues. Paper presented at the 42nd Congress of the European Regional Science Association (ERSA), Dortmund, Germany
CHAMINADE C and EDQUIST C (2006) From theory to practice: the use of systems of innovation approach in innovation policy, In Hage J and Meens M (Ed.) Innovation science and institutional change - Research Handbook, Oxford University Press, New York. pp. 141-162
COHEN W and LEVINTHAL D (1990) Absorptive Capacity: a New Perspective on Learning and Innovation. Adm Science Q. 35: 128-152
COOKE P (1998) Introduction: Origins of the Concept In Braczyc H, Cooke P and Heideinrech M (Ed.), Regional Innovation Systems, UCL Press, London. pp. 2-27
COOKE P and LEYDESDORFF L (2006) Regional Development in the Knowledge-Based Economy: the Construction of Advantage. J. Tech Transf. 31: 5-15. Doi: 10.1007/s10961-005-5009-3
COOKE P, Clifton N and Oleaga M (2005) Social Capital, Firm Embeddedness and Regional Development. Regional Stud. 39: 1065-1077. Doi: 10.1080/00343400500328065
COOKE P and SCHIENSTOCK G (2000) Structural Competitiveness and Learning Regions. Enterp. Innovation Manag. Stud. 1: 265-280. Doi: 10.1080/14632440010023217
DOUGHERTY C (2011) Introduction to Econometrics, Forth Edition, Oxford University Press, Oxford
EDQUIST C and HOMMEN L (1999) Systems of Innovation: Theory and Policy for the Demand Side. Tech Society 21: 63-79. Doi: 10.1016/S0160-791X(98)00037-2
FIELD J (2003) Social Capital, Routledge, London
FISCHER M (Ed) (2006) The New Economy and Networking In Fischer M (Ed) Innovations networks and knowledge spillovers. Springer, Viena. pp. 95-115
FISCHER M and NIJKAMP P (2007) Entrepreneurship and Regional Development In Capello R and Nijkamp P (Ed.) Handbook of Regional Growth and Development Theories, Edward Elgar, Cheltenham. pp. 182-198
FISCHER M, Scherngell T and Jansenberger E (2009) Geographic Localisation of Knowledge Spillovers: Evidence from High-Tech Patent Citations in Europe. Annals Regional Science, 43: 839-858. Doi: 10.1007/s00168-009-0300-0
FLØYSAND A and JAKOBSEN S (2010) The complexity of innovation: A relational turn. Prog. Hum. Geography 35: 328344. Doi: 10.1177/0309132510376257
FRATESI U and SENN L (2009) Regional Growth Connections and Economic Modeling: an Introduction In Fratesi U and Senn L (Ed.) Growth and Innovation of Competitive Regions – The Role of Internal and External Connections, Springer, Berlin. pp. 3-28
FREEMAN C (1995) The National System of Innovation in historical perspective. Cambridge Journal 19: 5-24
FRENKEN K, Oort F and Verburg T (2007) Related Variety, Unrelated Variety and Regional Economic Growth, Regional Stud. 41: 685–97. Doi: 10.1080/00343400601120296
GALINDO P, Vaz, T and Nijkamp P (2011) Institutional capacity to dynamically innovate: an application to the Portuguese case. Technol Forecast Soc Change 78: 3-12. Doi: 10.1016/j.techfore.2010.08.004
GRANOVETTER M (1985) Economic action and social structure: The problem of embeddedness, Am. J. Soc. 91: 481510
GREBEL T (2012) Network evolution in basic science. J Evol Econ. 2: 443-457. Doi: 10.1007/s00191-012-0266-4
GUERREIRO J and PINTO H (2012) The engaged university and institutional changes in Portuguese innovation systems. Int. J. Transitions and Innovation Systems 2: 72–90. Doi: 10.1504/IJTIS.2012.046937
GUJARATI D and PORTER D (2010) Essentials of Econometrics, Fourth Edition, Mcgraw-Hill, Singapore
GULBRANDSEN M, Mowery D and Feldman M (2011) Introduction to the special section: Heterogeneity and university-industry relations. Res Policy 40: 1-5
KIRAT T. and Lung Y (1999) Innovation and Proximity: Territories as Loci of Collective Learning Process. European Urban and Regional Stud. 6: 27-38. Doi: 10.1177/096977649900600103
KLINE S and Rosenberg N (1986) An overview of innovation, In Landau R and Rosenberg N (Eds.) The Positive Sum Strategy: Harnessing Technology for Economic Growth. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. pp 275–305
LLERENA P and OZMAN M (2013) Networks, irreversibility and knowledge creation. J Evol Econ 23: 431-453. Doi: 10.1007/s00191-011-0231-7
LUNDVALL B (1992) National Systems of Innovation - Toward a Theory of Innovation and Interactive Learning. Anthem Press, London
LUNDVALL B (1996) The Social Dimension of the Learning Economy. Danish Research Unit of Industrial Dynamics - Druid Working paper, 96: 1-20
MAGGIONI M and UBERTI T (2008) Knowledge Networks Across Europe: which Distance Matters? Annals of Regional Science 43: 691-720. Doi: 10.1007/s00168-008-0254-7.
MALERBA F (1999) Sectoral Systems of Innovation and Production. Paper presented at the DRUID Conference on National Innovation Systems, Industrial Dynamics and Innovation Policy, Rebild, Denmark
MALERBA F (2006) Innovation and the evolution of industries. J Evol Econ 16: 3-23. Doi: 10.1007/s00191-0050005-1
MCCANN P and OORT F (2009). Theories of Agglomeration and Regional Economic Growth: a Historical Review In In CAPELLO R and NIJKAMP P (Ed.) Handbook of
Regional Growth and Development Theories, Edgar Elgar Publishing, Massachusetts. pp. 19-32
MORONE P and TAYLOR R (2012) Proximity, knowledge integration and innovation: an agenda for agent-based studies. J Evol Econ 22: 19-47. Doi: 10.1007/s00191-010-0200-6
NELSON R (ed.) (1993) National Systems of Innovation: a comparative studies, Oxford University Press, Oxford.
NELSON R and WINTER S (1982) An Evolutionary Theory of Economic Change. Press of Harvard University, Cambridge
NIJKAMP P, Zwetsloot F and Wal S (2010) Innovation and Growth Potentials of European Regions: a Meta-Multicriteria Analysis. European Plan. Stud. 18: 595-611. Doi: 10.1080/09654311003593515
NONAKA I (1991) The Knowledge-Creation Company, Harvard Business Review, 69: 96-104
NORTH D (1991) Institutions, J. Econ. Perspectives, 5: 97– 112
OCDE (2005) Oslo Manual – Guidelines for Collecting and interpreting innovation data. 3rd edition, OECD Publications, Paris.
PERKMANN M, Tartari V, McKelvey M, Autio E, Broström A, D’Este P, Fini R, Geuna A, Grimaldi R, Hughes A, Kitson M, Krabel S, Llerena P, Lissoni F, Salter A and Sobrero M (2013) Academic Engagement and Commercialisation: A Review of the Literature on University-Industry Relations. Res Policy 42: 423-442. Doi: 10.1016/j.respol.2012.09.007
PINTO H and ESQUINAS M (2013) Breadth, intensity and informality of university-industry interactions in a South European region: Exploring knowledge transfer dynamics in Andalusia In Baycan T and Stough R (eds.) Knowledge Commercialization and Valorization in Regional Economic Development: New
Perspectives and Challenges, Cheltenham, UK, Edward Elgar. pp. 209-237. DOI: 10.4337/9781781004074.00018.
PORTER M (1998) Clusters and the New Economics of Competition, Harvard Business Review, 76: 77-90.
PUTMAN R (1995) Tuning In, Tuning Out: The Strange Disappearance of Social Capital in America. Pol. Science & Politics 28: 664-683.
RODRÍGUEZ-POSE A and CRESCENZI R (2008) Research and Development, Spillovers, Innovation Systems, and the Genesis of Regional Growth in Europe, Regional Stud, 42: 51-67. Doi: 10.1080/00343400701654186.
RUTTEN R, Westlund H and Boekema F (2010) The spatial dimension of social capital, European Plan. Stud. 18:863-871. Doi: 10.1080/09654311003701381.
SMITH K (2002) What is the “Knowledge Economy”? Knowledge Intensity and Distributed Knowledge Bases. UNU/INTECH - Discussion paper 2002(6), 1-32.
STORPER M (1997) The Regional World, The Guilford Press, New York.
SVEIBY K (2001) A Knowledge-based Theory of the Firm to Guide Strategy Formulation. J. Intellect. Cap. 2: 344-358. Doi: 10.1108/14691930110409651.
UYARRA E (2010) What is evolutionary about ‘regional systems of innovation’? Implications for regional policy, J Evol Econ, 20: 115-137. Doi: 10.1007/s00191-009-0135-y.
UYARRA E and FLANAGAN K (2012) Reframing Regional Innovation Systems: evolution, complexity and public policy. In Cooke P (Ed.) Re-framing Regional Development, Routledge, Abingdon.
VISSER E (2009) The Complementary Dynamic Effects of Clusters and Networks. Ind. and Innovation 16: 167–195. doi:
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2015 Journal of Technology Management & Innovation
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.