Ganas de Emprender y Felicidad: un Estudio Exploratorio a Partir del Global Entrepreneurship Monitor en Chile

Sergio Hinojosa-Martinez, Carlos Albornoz-Pardo


En este documento se utilizan datos del Global Entrepreneurship Monitor 2012 (GEM) para estimar empíricamente los determinantes de la Intención de Emprender (IE) en Chile, entre los que se incluye la felicidad. Trabajos previos han estudiado indirectamente, y de manera muy general, el rol de la felicidad en la IE, sin incorporarla como una variable explicativa. En consecuencia, inspirados en las recomendaciones de Casrud y Brannback (2011), y en la invitación de Elfing et al. (2009) de ajustar el modelo estándar de IE [Shapero (1982) y Ajzen (1991)], en este trabajo se introduce la felicidad tanto como una variable específica como moderadora, la cual se estima a través de un modelo LOGIT.

Los resultados del modelo muestran que la felicidad se relaciona de manera inversa con la Intención de Emprender. De esta forma, en la medida que es mayor la felicidad, menor es probabilidad de intención de emprender (o viceversa).


Intención de Emprender, Felicidad, Modelo LOGIT

Full Text:

PDF [es]


ACHOR, S. (2010), The Happiness Advantage: The Seven Principles of Positive Psychology That Fuel Success and Performance at Work Crown Publishing Group, 2010.

ACS, Z.J., Arenius, P., Hay, M. y Minniti, M. (2004), Global Entrepreneurship Monitor: 2004 Executive Report, Babson College, Babson, MA.

AJZEN, I., y M. Fishbein (1980), Understanding attitudes and predicting social behavior. EnglewoodCliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

AJZEN, I. (1991) “The theory of planned behavior”. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 50(2), 179-211.

ALESINA, A., Di Tella, R., y R. MacCulloch (2004) “Inequality and happiness: are Europeans and Americans different?” Journal of Public Economics, 88(9-10), 2009–2042.

AMÓROS, J.E. y Cristi, O. (2011). Poverty, Human Development and Entrepreneurship, In Minniti, M. (Ed.) The Dynamics of Entrepreneurship: Theory and Evidence. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 209–230.

AMORÓS, J.E. y Poblete, C. (2012) Reporte Nacional de Chile 2012 Global Entrepreneurship Monitor-GEM. Santiago: Universidad del Desarrollo.

AMORÓS, J.E. (2011) ¿Pueden los emprendedores contribuir a la felicidad? Guioteca Chile. Disponible en: (publicado el 23 de septiembre, 2011)

BANDURA, A. (1986), Social foundations of thought and action: A social cognitive theory. Englewood Cliffs,NJ: Prentice-Hall.

BARON, R., y S. Shane (2005), Entrepreneurship: A process perspective (1st edition). Mason, OH:South-Western Publishing.

BARON, R., Hmieleski, K. M., y R. Henry (2012) “Entrepreneurs’ dispositional positive affect: The potential benefits – and potential costs – of being up”. Journal of Business Venturing, 27(3).

BARON, A., y Tang, J. (2011) “The role of entrepreneurs in firm-level innovation: Joint effects of positive affect, creativity, and environmental dynamism”. Journal of Business Venturing, 26(1), 49–60.

BASS, B. M., y R Bass (2008), The Bass handbook of leadership: Theory, research, and managerial applications. New York: Free Press.

BAUM, J., Locke, E. y Smith, K. (2001). “A Multidimensional Model of Venture Growth. Academy of Management Journal”. 44(2), 292–303

BEN SHAHAR, T. (2012) Entrevista a Diario La Tercera. Santiago de Chile. Disponible en: (publicado el 6 de mayo, 2012)

BINDER, M. y T. BROEKEL (2012) “Happiness no matter the cost? An examination on how efficiently individuals reach their happiness levels”. Journal of Happiness Studies, 13 (4). pp. 621-645.

BINDER, M. (2012) “Innovativeness and Subjective Well-Being” Social Indicators Research. An International and Interdisciplinary Journal for Quality-of-Life Measurement Working Paper. Online ISSN 1573-0921.

BJØRN, G. (2006), “Mental Health” in The Biology of Happiness. Netherlands: Springer.

BRADLEY, R. H., y R.F. Corwyn (2002) “Socioeconomic status and child development” Annual Review of Psychology, 53(1), 371–399.

BRADLEY, R.H., Corwyn, R.F., McAdoo, H.P. y C Garcia Coll (2001). “The home environments of children in the United States: Part 1,Variations by Ethnic and Income Group” Child Development, 72, 1844-1867.

BRUSH, C.G., Greene, P.G., y M.M. Hart (2001) “From initial idea to unique advantage: the entrepreneurial challenge of constructing a resource base” Academy of Management Executive 15, 64–78.

BUTKOVIC,A.; Brkovic, I.; Bratko, D. (2012) “Predicting Well-Being From Personality in Adolescents and Older Adults” Journal of Happiness Studies Vol. 13 (3): 411-437.

CAREE, M. y I. Verheul (2012) “What makes entrepreneurs happy? Determinants of satisfaction amongst founders” Journal of Happiness Studies, 13(2), 371-387.

CARDON, M. S., Gregoire, D. A., Stevens, C. E. y P. Patel (2012) “Measuring entrepreneurial passion: Conceptual foundations and scale validation” Journal of Business Venturing.

CARSRUD, A., y M. Brannback (2011) “Entrepreneurial Motivations : What Do We Still Need to Know ?” Journal of Small Business Management, 49(1), 9–26.

CHATURVEDI, S., Arvey, R., Zhang, Z. y Christoforou, P. (2011). “Genetic Underpinnings of Transformational Leader-ship: The Mediating Role of Dispositional Hope”. Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies, 18(4), 469–479.

CRISTI, O. (2012) “Apuntes de Clases: Econometría Financiera” MCA Santiago de Chile. Universidad del Desarrollo.

DIENER, E., Nickerson, C., Lucas, R.E. y E. Sandvik (2002) “Dispositional affect and job outcomes”. Social Indicators Research, 59, 229–259.

DIENER, Lucas y Napa Scollon (2009), Beyond the Hedonic Treadmill: Revising the Adaptation Theory of Well-Being

EASTERLIN, R. (1974) “Does economic growth improve the human lot? Some empirical evidence”. En P.A. David & M.W. Reder (eds.), Nations and households in economic growth: essays in honor of Moses Abramovitz. New York & London: Academic Press.

ELFVING, J., Brännback, M. y A. Carsrud (2009) “Toward A Contextual Model of Entrepreneurial Intentions” en Understanding the Entrepreneurial Mind. ed. A. L. Carsrud y M. Brännback, 23-33. New York & London: Springer.

ETHUGALA, C.V. (2011) “Expectations of the Private and Civil Stakeholders Responsiveness of the State Sector: Tea Industry of Sri Lanka” Journal of APBITM 1(1), 13-19.

FINI, R., Grimaldi, R., Marzocchi, G.L. y Sobrero, M. (2009) “The Foundation of Entrepreneurial Intention”, conference proceedings in Summer Conference 2009, June 17-19, 2009, Frederiksberg, Denmark.

FISHBEIN, M. y Ajzen, I. (1975). Belief,Attitude, Intention, and Behavior: An Introduction to Theory and Research. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.

FITZSIMMONS, J. R., y E.J. Douglas (2011) “Interaction between feasibility and desirability in the formation of entrepreneurial intentions” Journal of Business Venturing, 26(4), 431-440.

FOO, M.D. (2011) “Emotions and entrepreneurial opportunity evaluation” Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice 35 (2), 375–393.

GLADWELL, M. (2003),The Tipping Point: How Little Things Can Make a Big Difference. New York: Little, Brown and Company.

GRAHAM, C. y Shapiro, J. (2009) “Knowing Why Afghans Smile May Help Win Hearts and Minds” Disponible en (publicado el 13 agosto, 2009)

GRANT, A.M., y B. Schwartz (2011) “Too much of a good thing: the challenge and opportunity of the inverted U “. Perspectives on Psychological Science 6, 61–76.

GREENE, W. (2003). Econometric Analysis (4ª ed.), Prentice Hall. 3ª edición en castellano: Análisis Econométrico.

GRETCHEN, R.(2001) “The Happiness Project: Or, Why I Spent a Year Trying to Sing in the Morning, Clean My Closets, Fight Right, Read Aristotle, and Generally Have More Fun” . Nueva York: HarperCollins

HARTUNG, P. J., Porfeli, E. J. y F.W.Vondracek (2005) “Child vocational development: A review and reconsideration” Journal of Vocational Behavior, 66(3), 385–419.

HELLIWELL, J., Layard, R. y J. Sachs, eds. (2012), World Happiness Report, Nueva York: The Earth Institute, Columbia University.

HESSELS, J., I. Grilo, R. Thurik y P. van der Zwan (2010) “Entrepreneurial exit and entrepreneurial engagement”. Journal of Evolutionary Economics,21(3): 447-471.

HMIELESKI, K.M. y R.A. Baron (2008) “When does entrepreneurial self-efficacy enhance versus reduce firm performance?” Strategic Entrepreneurship Journal 2,57–72.

IAKOVLEVA, T., Kolvereid, L., y U. Stephan (2011). Entrepreneurial Intentions in Developing and Developed Countries, Education and Training, 53(5), p.353-370.

KETS DE VRIES, M. (1985) “The Dark Side of Entrepreneurship” Harvard Business Review, Vol. 63, Issue 6, p. 160-167 1985.

KEYNES, J. M. (1936). Teoría general de la ocupación, el interés y el dinero, Fondo, Cuarta edición (corregida y aumentada), 2003.México: Fondo de Cultura Económica.

KIM, S. y Kim D. (2012) “Does Government Make People Happy?: Exploring New Research Directions for Government’s Roles in Happiness”. Journal of Happiness Studies, 2012, vol. 13, issue 5, pp.875-899.

KRUGER, N.F. y A. Carsud (1993) “Entrepreneurship intentions: Applying the theory of planned behavior” Entrepreneurship Theory and Regional Development. 5: 315-330.

KOE, W.-L., Sa’ari, J. R., Majid, I. A. y K. Ismail (2012) “Determinants of Entrepreneurial Intention Among Millennial Generation” Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 40, 197–208.

KRUEGER, Norris F. y D. Brazeal (1994) “Entrepreneurial Potential and Potential Entrepreneurs” Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice,Vol. 18, Issue 3, p. 91-104 1994.

KRUEGER, N.F. Jr., Reilly, M.D. y A.L Carsrud (2000) “Competing Models of Entrepreneurial Intentions” Journal of Business Venturing, 15: 411–432.

KURATKO, D. F. (2007) “Entrepreneurial Leadership in the 21st Century: Guest Editor’s Perspective” Journal of Leader-ship & Organizational Studies, 13(4), 1–11.

LAYARD, R. (2005), La felicidad: Lecciones de una nueva ciencia. Madrid:Taurus.

LARROULET, C. y J.P. Couyoumdjian (2009) “ Entrepreneurship and Growth:A Latin American Paradox” The Independent Review, v 14(1): 81-100.

LASPITA, S., Breugst, N., Heblich, S. y Patzelt, H. (2012). Intergenerational transmission of entrepreneurial intentions. Journal of Business Venturing, 27(4), 414–435.

LYKKEN, D. (2006), The Heritability of Happiness. Harvard Mental Health Letter.

MEULMAN, J. J. y Heiser,W. J. (2005). SPSS Categories® 14.0.

NICOLAOU, N. y Shane, S. (2009). Can genetic factors influence the likelihood of engaging in entrepreneurial activity? Journal of Business Venturing, 24(1), 1–22.

GILBERT, D. (2004), Stumbling on Happiness. Nueva York: Harper Collins Publishers.

PATZELT, H. y D. Shepherd (2011) “Negative emotions of an entrepreneurial career: Self-employment and regulatory coping behaviors” Journal of Business Venturing, 26(2), 226-238.

PNUD (2012), Informe Desarrollo Humano en Chile: Bienestar subjetivo: el desafío de repensar el desarrollo. Santiago de Chile. Sinopsis disponible en:

RATHOBE, J. (2012) Protests: Middle class unhappy over continued inequalities. Financial Times. Disponible en: (publicado el 1 octubre, 2012)

RAUCH, A. y M. Frese (2006) “Meta-analysis as a tool for developing entrepreneurship research and theory” In: Wiklund, J., Dimov, D.P., Katz, J., Shepherd, D. (Eds.),Advances in Entrepreneurship, Firm Emergence, and Growth,Vol. 9. Elsevier, London, pp. 29–52

SCHMIDT-HEBBEL, K. (2012) El crecimiento económico en Chile. Diario El Mercurio, Economía y Negocios. Santiago de Chile. Disponible en: (publicado el 28 de agosto, 2012)

SHANE, S., y S.Venkataraman (2000) “The promise of entre-preneurship as a field of research”Academy of Management Review, 25(1), 217-226.

SHAPERO, A. (1982) “Social Dimensions of Entrepreneur-ship” Pp. 72-90 in C. Kent, D. Sexton and K.Vesper (eds.).The Encyclopedia of Entrepreneurship.

SELIGMAN, M. (2012), Flourish:A Visionary New Under-standing of Happiness and Well-being.New York: Simon & Schuster, Inc.

SERIDA, J. y O. Morales (2011) “Using the theory of planned behavior to predict nascent entrepreneurship”. Academia, Revista Latinoamericana de Administración, 46, 2011, 55-71

STEVENSON, B., y J.Wolfers (2008) “Economic Growth and Subjective Well-Being: Reassessing the Easterlin Paradox”. SSRN Electronic Journal. Volume: 2008, Issue: 1, Publisher: SSRN, Pages: 1-87

THALER,R. y C. Sunstein (2009), Nudge: Improving Decisions About Health,Wealth, and Happiness. Nueva York: Penguin Books. [Un pequeño empujón (Nudge): El impulso que necesitas para tomar mejores decisiones sobre salud, dinero y felicidad, trad. de Belén Urrutia, México DF, Santillana]

UNANUE,W. (2012) Conferencia en 1° Encuentro de Felicidad en Chile. Disponible en Entretenimiento/Vida-y-Estilo/Instituto-Felicidad-Coca-Cola/ (publicado el 28 de mayo, 2012)

UNGER, J. M., Rauch, A., y M. Frese (2011) “Human capital and entrepreneurial success: Ameta-analytical review” Journal of Business Venturing, 341–358.

UY, M., Foo, M. y Z. Song (2012) “Joint effects of prior start-up experience and coping strategies on entrepreneurs psychological well-being” Journal of Business Venturing.

VAN DIERENDONCK, D. (2012) “Spirituality as an essential determinant for the Good Life, its importance relative to self-determinant psychological needs” Journal of Happiness Studies, 13, 685-700.

WALLIS, C. (2005) The New Science of Happiness. Time Magazine. Disponible en:,9171,1015832,00.html (publicado el 9 en- ero,2005)


Copyright (c)

2017 © Universidad Alberto Hurtado - Facultad de Economía y Negocios. 
Erasmo Escala 1835 - Santiago, Chile.
Economic Analysis Review | Observatorio Económico | Gestión y Tendencias 

Journal Supported by Chimera Innova Group