Challenges and Outcome of Innovative Behavior: A Qualitative Study of Tourism Related Entrepreneurs
Keywords:innovative behavior, innovativeness, Langkawi, tourism
AbstractThe tourism industry is currently Malaysia’s third most important industry in terms of foreign exchange earnings after the manufacturing and palm oil sectors. Its contribution to GDP growth is about 7.2%, suggesting that the industry is still in its infancy and therefore offers much scope for future growth. Furthermore tourism industry has been recognized as important economic activities especially during the current economic crisis. Malaysian government announced as part of the Mini Budget tabled in parliament on 10th March 2009 that RM200 million will be allocated to various tourism related programs. However, tourism industry is in a downward spiral due to various reasons such as global economic crisis and strong competition from other countries. Innovative efforts are necessary to further promote this industry so as to reap the full benefits and potential of this sector, besides giving it a competitive edge against its competitors like Thailand, Hong Kong and Singapore. Emphasis should be given to the development of competitive tourism products or services to enhance foreign exchange earnings and savings. Innovative approach such as creativity is the key element for success. This paper attempts to synthesize the scope and role of innovation in the determination of effectiveness of tourism related entrepreneurs. Furthermore, this paper proposed that strategic innovativeness and behavioral innovativeness enhance performance of entrepreneurs.
TH MALAYSIA PLAN 2011- 2015. (2010). Putrajaya.
ALDEBERT, B., Dang, R., & Longhi, C. (2010). Innovation in the Tourism Industry: The Case of Tourism@. Tourism Management.
BAGLIERI, D., & Consoli, R. (2009). Collaborative Innovation in Tourism: Managing Virtual Communities. The TQM Journal, 21(4), 353 - 364.
BE MORE INNOVATIVE AND CREATIVE, Tourism Players Told. (2010).The Star.
BUHALIS, D., & Law, R. (2008). Progress in Information Technology and Tourism Management: 20 Years on and 10 Years after the Internet--the State of Etourism Research. Tourism Management, 29(4), 609-623.
DAVEY, S. M., Brennan, M., Meenan, B. J., & McAdam, R. (2011, 27-30 June 2011). A Framework to Manage the Innovation Strategies of New Technology Based Firms. Paper presented at the 2011 IEEE International Technology Management Conference (ITMC), San Jose, California, USA.
HALL, C. M. (2009). Innovation and Tourism Policy in Australia and New Zealand: Never the Twain Shall Meet? Journal of Policy Research in Tourism, Leisure and Events, 1(1), 2-18.
HALL, C. M., & Williams, A. M. (2008). Tourism and Innovation. Oxford: Routledge.
HASHIM, M. K., Mahajar, A. J., & Ahmad, S. (2003). Innovative Practices of Malaysian Firms: Some Evidence from Enterprise 50 Winners. Malaysian Management Review.
HIRSCH-KREINSEN, H. (2008). “Low-Technology”: A Forgotten Sector in Innovation Policy. Journal of Technology Management & Innovation, 3(3 ), 11-20.
HJALAGER, A.-M. (2002). Repairing Innovation Defectiveness in Tourism.Tourism Management, 23(5), 465-474.
HJALAGER, A.-M. (2010). A Review of Innovation Research in Tourism. Tourism Management, 31(1), 1-12. doi: 10.1016/j. tourman.2009.08.012
HJALAGER, A. (2006). The Marriage between Welfare Services and Tourism-a Driving Force for Innovation? Journal of Quality Assurance in Hospitality & Tourism, 6(3), 7-29.
HJALAGER, A. (2009a). Cultural Tourism Innovation Systems–the Roskilde Festival. Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism, 9(2), 266-287.
HJALAGER, A. (2009b). Innovations in Travel Medicine and the Progress of Tourism--Selected Narratives. Technovation, 29(9), 596-601.
HOLDEN, M.T., Foley, A., Lynch, P., & Hussey, J. (2010). Building Entrepreneurship and Innovation through the Continuing Education of Micro and Small Tourism Enterprises. Paper presented at the Tourism Entrepreneurship Conference, Wilfrid Laurier University,Waterloo, Canada.
HULT, G. T. M., Hurley, R. F., & GA, K. (2004). Innovativeness: Its Antecedents and Impact on Business Performance. Industrial Marketing Management, 33 (5), 429-438.
Inovasi Sektor Awam Melestari Perkhidmatan Kelas Pertama. (2011, 28 Julai 2011). Utusan Malaysia.
MATTSSON, J., Sundbo, J., & Fussing-Jensen, C. (2005). Innovation Systems in Tourism: The Roles of Attractors and Scene-Takers. Industry and Innovation, 12(3), 357-381.
NOVELLI, M., Schmitz, B., & Spencer, T. (2006). Networks, Clusters and Innovation in Tourism: A Uk Experience. Tourism Management, 27(6), 1141-1152.
NYBAKK, E., & Hansen, E. (2008). Entrepreneurial Attitude, Innovation and Performance among Norwegian Nature-Based Tourism Enterprises. Forest Policy and Economics, 10(7-8), 473-479.
ORFILA-SINTES, F., & Mattsson, J. (2009). Innovation Behavior in the Hotel Industry. Omega, 37(2), 380-394.
PAGET, E., Dimanche, F., & Mounet, J. (2010). A Tourism Innovation Case: An Actor-Network Approach. Annals of Tourism Research, 37(3), 828-847.
Rm40bil Targeted from Local Tourism:Tour Agents Told to Get Innovative and Creative to Woo the Public. (2010).The Star.
RUBALCABA, L. (2006).Which Policy for Innovation in Services? Science and Public Policy, 33(10), 745-756.
SIPE, L., & Testa, M. (2009). What Is Innovation in the Hospitality and Tourism Marketplace? A Suggested Research Framework and Outputs Typology. Paper presented at the 2009 International CHRIE Conference, San Franscisco, California.
SUNDBO, J., Orfila-Sintes, F., & Sørensen, F. (2007). The Innovative Behaviour of Tourism Firms--Comparative Studies of Denmark and Spain. [doi: DOI: 10.1016/j.respol.2006.08.004]. Research Policy, 36(1), 88-106.
TOP 10 BEACHES. (2011) Retrieved 10 October 2011, 2011, from http://travel.nationalgeographic.com/travel/top-10/beaches/#page=1
WANG, C. L., & Ahmed, P. K. (2004). The Development and Validation of the Organisational Innovativeness Construct Using Confirmatory Factor Analysis. European Journal of Innovation Management, 7(4), 303-313.
WEIERMAIR, K. (2006). Prospects for Innovation in Tourism. Journal of Quality Assurance in Hospitality & Tourism, 6(3), 59-72.
ZAWISLAK, P. A. n., & Marins, L. M. e. (2007). Strenghtening Innovation in Developing Countries. Journal of Technology Management & Innovation, 2(4), 44-54.
How to Cite
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).