The Spin-off Chain
AbstractSeveral theories have been developed over a large number of years on the effort of localisation and exploitation of research results that take place in research laboratories and which can lead to the production of innovative products. This process is being facilitated by spin-off companies. The purpose of this paper is to shed light on this process of developing a spin-off company. To this goal a framework has been developed, namely “the Spin-off Chain”, which will be used as a guide and will provide to future entrepreneurs a roadmap exploiting the knowledge produced in academic and research laboratories.
BATHELT, H., Kogler, D.F., Munro, A.K. (2010). A knowledge-based typology of university spin-offs in the context of regional economic development. Technovation, 30, 519-532.
BYGRAVE, W.D. (1989). The entrepreneurship Paradigm (I); A philosophical Look at its Research Methodologies, Entrepreneurship Theory and Practise, 14(1), 1-26.
BIRD, B. (1988). Implementing Entrepreneurial Ideas; the Case for Intention. Academy of Management Review, 13, 442-453.
CARAYANNIS E., Rogers E., Kurihara K., Allbritton M. (1997). High Technology spin-offs from government R&D laboratories and research universities. Technovation,. 18(1), 1-11.
CHIESA, V., Piccaluga, A. (2000). Exploitation and diffusion of public research: the case of academic spin-off companies in Italy. R&D Management, 30(4), 329-339.
COHEN, W.F., Florida, R., Randazzese, L., Walsh, J. (1998). Industry and the academy: uneasy partners in the cause of the technological advance. In: Noll, R. (Ed.), Challenge to the Research University. Washington, DC, pp. 163-191.
COOPER, R.G. (1993). Winning at new products: accelerating the process from idea to launch. Addison-Wesley. Reading, Mass.
DE COSTER, R., Butler, C. (2005). Assessment of proposals for new technology ventures in the UK: characteristics of university spin-off companies. Technovation, 25(5), 535-543.
DEGROOF, J.J., Roberts, E. (2004). Overcoming weak entrepreneurial Infrastructures for Academic Spin-off ventures. Journal of Technology Transfer, 29, 327-352.
DRUILHE, C., Garnsey, E. (2001). Academic spin-off ventures: a resource opportunity approach. In: W. During, R. Oakey and S. Kauser Eds., New technology-based firms in the new millennium. pp. 175-190.
DRUIHE, C. Garnsey, E. (2002). Tracking the Emergence and Progress of University Spin-out Cases. IEEE International Engineering Management Conference. Cambridge.
ETZKOWITZ, H., Webster, A., Gebhardt, C., Terra, B.R.C. (2000). The future of the university and the University of the Future: evolution of ivory tower to entrepreneurial paradigm. Research Policy. 29(2), 313-330.
EUROPEAN COMMISSION (1998). Communication from the Commission to the Council and the European Parliament. Risk capital: a key to job creation in the European Union". Commission of the European Communities, Brussels.
EUROPEAN COMMISSION (2000). Communication from the Commission to the Council and the European Parliament. Progress report on the risk capital Action Plan (COM 2000) 658 final.
EUROPEAN COMMISSION (2003). Green Paper, Entrepreneurship in Europe. Document based on COM 27final.
FRANKLIN, S., Wright, M., Lockett, A. (2001). Academic and surrogate entrepreneurs in university spin-out companies. Journal of Technology Transfer, 26, 127-141.
GARTNER, W.B. (1985). A Framework for Describing the Phenomenon of New Venture Creation. Academy of Management Review. 10, 696-706.
GILSING, V.A., Elco van Burg, Romme, A.G.L, (2010). Policy principles for the creation and success of corporate and academic spin-offs. Technovation, 30, 12-23.
GLADER, M. (2004). Innovation markets and competition analysis - EU competition law and US antitrust law. pp 2-4.
GOLDFARB, B., Henrekson, M. (2002). Bottom-up versus top-down policies towards the commercialization of university intellectual property. Research Policy. 32(4), 639- 658.
GOMPERS, P., Lerner, J. (1999). The Venture Capital Cycle.
GREENBERGER, D.B., Sexton, D.L (1988). An Interactive Model of New Venture Creation. Journal for Small Business Management. 26, 1-7
KLOFSTEN M., Lindell P., Olofsson C.and Wahlbin C., (1988). Internal and External Resources in Technology-Based Spin-off: A Survey. In: Kirchhoh B.A., Long W.A., McMullan E.W, Vesper K.H., Wetzel W.E. (Eds). Frontiers of Entrepreneurship Research. Babson College, 430-443.
LEE, Y.S, (1996). Technology transfer and the research university: A search for the boundaries of university-industry collaboration. Research Policy. 25(6), 843-863.
LOCKETT, A., Wright, M. (2005). Resources, capabilities, risk capital and the creation of university spin-out companies. Research Policy. 34(7), 1043-1057.
LOWE, J. (1993). Commercialization of university research: a policy perspective. Technology Analysis and Strategic Management. 5(1), 27-37.
MINTZBERG, H. (1989). Mintzberg on Management: Inside our Strange World of Organizations. The Free Press, New York.
MOWERY, D.C., Shane, S. (2002). Introduction to the special issue on university entrepreneurship and technology transfer. Management Science. 48(1), v-ix.
MULLER, K. (2010). Academic spin-off's transfer speed - Analyzing the time from leaning university to venture. Research Policy. 39, 189-199.
MUSTAR P., (1997). Spin-off enterprises. How French academics create high-tech companies: the conditions for success or failure. Science & Public Policy. 24(1), 37-43.
MUSTAR, P., Renault, Colombo, M., Piva, M.G., Fontes, E., Lockett, M., Wright, A., Clarysse, M., and Moray, N. (2006). Conceptualizing the heterogeneity of research-based spin-offs: a multi dimensional taxonomy. Research Policy, 35, 289-308.
NDONZUAU, F.N., Pirnay, F. and Surlemont B., (2002). A stage model of academic spin-off creation. Technovation, 22(5), 281-289.
OAKEY, R. (1995). High-technology new firms: Variable barriers to growth. Paul Chapman, London.
OECD, (1999). Fostering entrepreneurship. OECD, Paris.
OECD, (2003). Turning science into business: patenting and licensing at public research organizations. OECD, Paris.
OWEN-SMITH, J., Riccaboni, M., Pammolli, F., Powell, W. W. (2002). A Comparison of U.S. and European University-Industry Relations in the Life Sciences. Management Science,. 48 (1), 24-43.
PEREZ, M.P., Sanchez, A.M., Martinez, A. (2003). The development of university spin-offs: early dynamics of technology transfer and networking. Technovation, 23, pp 823-831.
PIRNAY, F., Surlemont, B., Nlemvo, F. (2003). Toward a typology of university spin-offs. Small Business Economics. 21, 355-369.
POWERS, J.B., McDougall, P.P. (2000). University start-up formation and technology licensing with firms that go public: a resource-based view of academic entrepreneurship. Journal of Business Venturing, 20(3), 291-311.
RADOSEVICH, R. (1995). A model for entrepreneurial spin-offs from public technology sources. International Journal of Technology Management. 10, 879-893.
RAPPERT, B., Webster, A., Charles, D. (1999). Making sense of diversity and reluctance: academic-industrial relations and intellectual property. Research Policy. 28(7), 873-890.
RASMUSSEN, E. (2006). Spin-off venture creation in a university context - An entrepreneurial process view. Bodo Graduate School of Business. pp 1-29.
RASMUSSEN, E., Borch, O.J. (2010). University capabilities in facilitating entrepreneurship: A longitudinal study of spin-off ventures at mid-range universities. Technovation, 39, 602-612.
RASMUSSEN, E., Moen, Ø., Gulbrandsen, M., (2006). Initiatives to promote commercialization of university knowledge. Technovation, 26, 518-533.
REITAN, B. (1997). Fostering technical entrepreneurship in research communities: granting scholarships to would be entrepreneurs. Technovation. 17(6), 287-296.
ROBERTS, E.B. (1991). Entrepreneurs in High-technology: Lessons from MIT and beyond. New York, Oxford University Press.
ROBERTS, E.B. and Malone, D.E., (1996). Policies and structures for spinning off new companies from research and development organizations. R&D Management. 26(1), 17-48.
ROGERS, E.M., Larsen, J.K. (1984). Silicon Valley Fever: Growth of high-Technology Culture, New York Editeur.
ROGERS, E.M. ( 1986). The role of the research university in the spin-off of high-technology companies. Technovation,. 4, 169-181
ROGERS, E.M. ( 1986). High tech companies that are University Spin-offs, Entrepreneurship and Technology. World experiences and policies, pp 134-143.
ROWEN, H.S., (2000). Serendipity or Strategy: How Technology and Markets Came to Favor Silicon Valley. In: C.M. Lee, W.F. Miller, M.G.Hancock, and H.S. Rowen (eds). The Silicon Valley Hedge. A habitat for Innovation and Entrepreneurship. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press. Pp.184-199.
SAHLMAN, W. (1997). How to Write a Great Business Plan. Harvard Business Review.
SAMSON, K.J., Gurdon, M.A. (1993). University scientists as entrepreneurs: a special case of technology transfer and high-tech venturing. Technovation. 13(2), 63-71.
SHANE, S. (2004). Academic entrepreneurship -University spin-offs and wealth creation. 353 pp. New horizons in entrepreneurship, edited by S. Venkataraman. Edward Elgar Publishing, Inc., Cheltenham.
STALK, G. Jr., Hout T.M. (1990). Competing against time: how time-based competition is reshaping global markets. Free Press.
STEVENSON H.H, Jarillo J.C. (1990). A Paradigm of Entrepreneurship: Entrepreneurial Management. Strategic Management Journal. Summer Special Issue, 11, 17-27.
STOREY, D., Tether, B. (1998). Public policy measures to support new technology-based firms in the European Union. Research Policy. 26, 1037-1057.
TEMPLE L. (1996). European Community Antitrust Law: Innovation Markets and High Technology Industries. Fordham Corporate Law Institute. New York, p.41.
VAN BURG, E., Romme, A.G.L., Gilsing, V.A., Reymen, I.M.M.J. (2008). Creating University Spin-Offs: A science-based design perspective. The Journal of Product Innovation Management, 25, 114-128.
WORLD ECONOMIC FORUM (2009). Global Competitiveness Report 2009-2010. Geneva, Switzerland.
WRIGHT, M., Birley, S., Mosey, S. (2004). Entrepreneurship and university technology transfer. Journal of Technology Transfer. 29, 235-246.
ZUCKER, L., Darby, M., Brewer, M. (1998). Intellectual human capital and the birth of US biotechnology enterprises. American Economic Review. 88(1), 290-306.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).