The “Athena Paradox:” Bridging the Gender Gap in Science.

Henry Etzkowitz


Science is fraught with gender inequities that depress women’s professional careers and invade their personal space, as well (Tri-national Conference (2003); Commission on Professionals in Science and Technology, 2004; Rosser, 2004). For example, female PhD students in the U.S. are often excluded from the informal social groupings that advance professional socialization (Etzkowitz, Kemelgor and Uzzi, 2000). Not too long ago, a party celebrating the completion of the PhD by a female scientist in Brazil was interrupted by word that her husband was filing for divorce, apparently unable to countenance her rise in status symbolized by attainment of an advanced degree. A “gender tax” in evaluation of scientific work has been identified in experiments that assign the same paper to male and female authors.

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